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Horticultural Society 

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Sparattosperma vernicosum I Cham.) Bur. et K. Sen. 
A Bignonia Tree growing on School Street, Honolulu 

After a painting by D. Howard Hitchcock 














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During a residence of more than nine years in these lovely 
Islands, the writer has had opportunity in his connection with the 
Board of Agriculture and Forestry and the College of Hawaii, as 
Botanist, to devote all his time and lately part of his time to the 
study of the Hawaiian Flora. It is true he was not interested until 
lately in the introduced ornamental plants of Hawaii, but made the 
native Flora his specialty. The result of part of the writer's re- 
search was published under the title "The Indigenous Trees of the 
Hawaiian Islands." 

Many have been the requests, however, for a non-technical vol- 
ume treating the ornamental shrubs and trees of Hawaii and Hono- 
lulu especially, the need of which has long been felt. The writer 
took it upon himself to prepare such a book, which at first seemed 
an easy task. He was, however, sadly mistaken. While some of 
the trees did not give much difficulty as far as their identity was con- 
cerned, others again proved more elusive, especially such as belong 
to genera with numerous species. It took many journeys to all the 
by-ways of Honolulu in search of plants, and often the writer was 
told that in such and such a yard there was a tree which seemed to be 
the only one in Honolulu. Often the tale proved to be true, and 
occasionally it was a false alarm. 

It may be stated that the plants treated or mentioned in this 
volume are represented by specimens in the College of Hawaii Herb- 
arium, and that they have been critically worked up. They have 
not been cited from mere hear-say, but specimens were examined in 
every instance. 

The nomenclature has been kept strictly in accordance with the 
laws laid down by the last Botanical Congress held at Vienna in 
1905 and not according to horticultural dealers or gardeners, who 
simply apply a familiar name to a plant for the sole purpose of selling 
it more easily. This accounts for the many species of Kcntia, while 
in reality none of the palms on the market as such have anything 
whatsoever in common with species of that rare genus. Nomenclature 
of such type belongs to commercial botany. 

While the title of this book is a modest one it gives more infor- 
mation than is announced on the cover. The writer has treated not 
only the ornamental trees, but also shrubs and in addition has men- 
tioned the fruit trees and ornamental vines. It is not claimed that 
this book includes all of the introduced trees, and, while it is a fairly 
complete presentation of the trees found in Honolulu and elsewhere 

in the Islands, there still remain a few as yet unidentified ; among 
them are a few species of the genus Ficus, which possesses six hun- 
dred species in all. Undoubtedly there are still a few odd trees in 
some out of the way locality to be heard from, and the writer hopes 
that this volume will stimulate the interest in the search for such. 
He would welcome a correspondence with anyone residing in this 
Territory who has a tree or trees not treated in this book, and would 
welcome the receipt of flowering and fruiting specimens for identi- 
fication, with any facts known regarding the history of introduction. 

The information given under each tree or shrub has been obtained 
from reliable works, the most noteworthy being "Watt's Dictionary 
of the Economic Products of India." 

During his travels through India and Ceylon and other parts of 
the world, the writer himself has gathered facts regarding the useful 
qualities of some of the trees cultivated in Hawaii. In only a few 
instances was it possible to give historic data, as time of introduction 
and name of introducer. Such knowledge is scarce, and often not 

The photographs illustrating this volume are original, and have 
been taken by the author save in one instance, plate XXVIII, which 
was taken by Mr. W. M. Giffard. It has now become the writer's 
property through gift. 

The writer's sincere thanks are due to the patrons whose gener- 
ous support made this publication possible. He is especially grateful 
to Doctors A. Romberg and A. L. Andrews of the College of Hawaii 
for the reading of manuscript and proof sheets. 

The volume is herewith presented to the public with the hope 
that it will fulfill the purpose for which it was intended and arouse 
enthusiasm among the kamaainas for the protection of these trees 
entrusted into their care. Let them plant new generations of some 
of the single and odd specimens introduced by their forefathers, that 
they may not share the fate of some of our native trees. 

Honolulu, October 13, 1916. 


It is really astonishing how many species of plants one observes 
when taking a walk through the older residential section of Hono- 
lulu. If even only slightly acquainted with tropical plants one soon 
learns to distinguish the species of plants (or trees) which adorn 
this beautiful city; indeed an arboretum in itself. The question 
arises, who is responsible for the introduction of the many wonderful 
plants. The writer is sorry to state that it was not always pos- 
sible to ascertain the historical facts regarding each. Many of 
the older residents who knew or remembered the approximate date 
of introduction of some of the more striking plants, have passed 
away without leaving records regarding the origin of many of the 
plants now under cultivation in Honolulu. The Honolulu people 
have always been great travelers, and in the early days when voyages 
had to be made around the "Horn" sailing vessels usually stopped 
en route at South American ports and many seeds were thus gathered 
and brought to Honolulu, but the names of the plants, and where 
they came from were forgotten, and often even the place where they 
were planted. Save for a few old residents, actually and system- 
atically interested in plant introduction, the majority of them 
brought things home in the above described manner. 

The writer found some valuable information in the Proceedings 
of the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society of 1855 regarding the 
introduction of certain plants, and as the volume is not available, or 
known in general, he gives such facts as have bearing on the present 

It may be stated that the presence of many of the rarer plants 
in Honolulu is due to the indefatigable efforts of Dr. William 
Hillebrand, an ardent student of the Hawaiian Flora, and a long- 
time resident of these Islands where he held many prominent public 
offices. Honolulu owes him the profoundest gratitude. 

The first white settler and agriculturist on the Island of Oahu 
was Don Francisco de Paula Marin. He came to the Islands in the 
vessel Princesa Real in 1791. From his arrival to the time of his 
death, which occurred in Honolulu on October, 1837 (63 years old), 
he devoted all his spare time to the cultivation of his garden. He 
kept a journal, which, at the time of his death, consisted of several 
volumes; his first entry was on Nov. 14, 1809. He relates on 
January 11, 1813, that he planted pineapples, an orange tree, beans, 
cabbage, potatoes, peaches, chirimoyas, horse radish, melons, tobacco, 
carrots, asparagus, maize, fig trees, lemons, and lettuce. It is not 

at all surprising not to find a few ornamental plants among the 
list, for in those days Honolulu had little to offer in the vegetable 
line save taro and bananas, and for a European used to vegetables, 
living was indeed a difficult problem. He tells us that in 1815 he 
planted vines (grapes) for the king, and that on December 30, 
1817, he set out coffee, cotton, cloves, tomatoes, turnips, pepper 
(capsicum), wheat, barley, castor oil, saffron and cherries. 

Again it was Don Marin who made the first sugar in the Islands 
on the 25th of February, 1819. On the 22nd of September of the 
same year he tells us that he obtained his first orange from the tree 
planted eight years ago. 

While these introductions have no particular connection with the 
plants concerning us in this book, it is, however, of interest to record 
them. The first introductions of seeds were those of melons, 
pumpkins and onions ; they were landed on the Island of Niihau on 
Sunday, the first of February, 1778. Vancouver, on the fourth of 
March, 1792, presented to Kahaumoku, a chief on Hawaii (father 
of Kaahumanu), the first grape, orange, and almond seeds as well 
as other garden seeds. 

To Don Marin or Manini, as he was called by the natives, who 
also named the Bermuda grass after him, which to this day is known 
as Manienie, is due first credit. It is only to be regretted that the 
whereabouts of his journal are at present not known. Other men 
actively interested in the introduction of plants were G. Wunden- 
berg, W. L. Lee, E. Bailey, A. Jaeger and others, to mention only 
the earlier ones. 

G. Wundenburg reports having successfully planted at Hanalei, 
Kauai, in 1849, the first Inocarpus edulis, Tahitian Chestnut, while 
Papaias, Chirimoya and Vi apples he planted in 1848, the seed 
having been brought from Tahiti. He also records the planting of a 
Tamarind in 1847, which flowered for the first time in May, 1852. 
In the same year (1847) he set out two date palms. 

Numerous must have been the introductions of both ornamental 
and useful plants as early even as 1840, for W. L. Lee, president 
of the R. H. Agricult. Soc, writes on June 7, 1853: "Let those 
who wish to be convinced of the value of trees look back a few- 
years upon the burned and barren yards of Honolulu and compare 
them with the cool and beautiful groves of our forest city." 
Numerous other references could be cited would space permit ; suf- 
fice it to say, however, while general introductions were made no 
real efforts, at least no successful ones were inaugurated, for the 


setting aside of a tract of land for a botanic garden and the system- 
atic planting of such. 

Dr. W. Hillebrand was one of the most ardent advocates of the 
establishment of such an institution, as can be observed from his 
addresses delivered before the R. H. Agricultural Society. He states 
that he had been in active communication with the botanic gardens 
of Rio de Janeiro and other like institutions and that he had 
planted 160 species in his grounds. Unfortunately the list giving 
the names which was to be appended was mislaid and could not be 
secured in time for the printing of the proceedings of the above 
mentioned society. 

The reader will find the name of Airs. Alary E. Foster on 
nearly every page in this book in connection with trees occurring on 
her premises, once the old home of Dr. W. Hillebrand, who was 
responsible for the introduction of all these plants. 

Many plants were introduced by later generations, but the 
quoting of such instances would lead us too far. 

More interest, however, should be taken in growing certain of 
these plants which are often represented by single specimens only. 
As they are now very old they are likely to succumb and could not 
well be replaced. Much could be said in regard to the taking care 
of and the planting of the various public gardens existing in Hono- 
lulu, and were their supervision in competent hands a good deal more 
could be accomplished, even with the limited funds on hand. For 
a matter of record the writer wishes to state that he introduced 
many ornamental plants new to Hawaii, from various parts of 
the world. He traveled through tropical Asia, the Dutch East 
Indies and other tropical islands for the sole purpose of introducing 
valuable ornamental plants. Amherstia nobilis, and species of 
Broivnea, are among the latest introductions ; they are considered 
the finest of all flowering plants known, but all previous efforts 
to introduce these plants had failed. 

Great credit is due to Mr. G. P. Wilder for the introduction of 
many plants and likewise to the efforts of Mrs. F. J. Lowrey, 
President of the Outdoor Circle, and to that body in general for 
the great unselfish interest shown in the beautification of Honolulu. 

May the spirit that inspired the past generations to make Hono- 
lulu a forest city, be the inheritance of the younger generation into 
whose care this city is entrusted. 

May it always be ''Honolulu the Beautiful." 


Naked-Seeded Plants. 

The seeds of these plants are not enclosed in a pericarp but are 
usually contained in a cone of some sort. As examples serve the 
cones of pine- or fir-trees. The plants belonging to this group are 
all woody, the majority of them are trees, only few are shrubs. 


To the family Cycadaceae belong our cultivated species of Cycas, 
one of which, Cycas revoluta, has often been erroneously termed Sago 
palm. This family comprises woody plants which are restricted to 
tropical and subtropical regions. 

It is an extremely interesting group of plants on account of the 
position it occupies in the plant kingdom, intermediate between the 
ferns and the flowering plants. A few words in regard to the re- 
lationship of the cycads to other plants may not be out of place here. 
The Cycads are dioecious — that is, the male and female flowers are 
borne on different trees. The young foliage is rolled up exactly as in 
ferns. The male inflorescence grows in the form of erect cones, con- 
sisting of scales which bear globose pollen sacs underneath ; the fe- 
male inflorescence is in the center of the crowns of the leaves ; and con- 
sists of pinnately notched leaves called carpophylls in whose notches 
the naked ovules are situated ; pollination is effected by the wind. It 
has fruits like those of flowering plants, with starchy endocarp, but 
fertilization is accomplished by means of spermatozoids and arche- 
gonia, corresponding to the male and female elements in animals ; this 
brings them closer to the Cryptogams, which are plants destitute of 
stamens, pistils, and true seeds. 

Cycas revoluta Thunb. 
So-called Sago Palm. 

Cycas revoluta has a stout cylindrical trunk which does not 
branch and does not exceed three feet in height; the leaves are numer- 
ous, forming a crown horizontally around the apex of the stem. The 
leaflets are strongly revolute — that is, their margins are rolled back, 
hence the name "revoluta." As already remarked in the introduction 
under Cycadaceae, the plant is not related to the palms and is erron- 
eously called Sago palm. It is a native of China and is now culti- 
vated in many other countries besides Hawaii, and can often be found 

Plate I. 

Cycas circinalis L. 
Growing in the grounds of Mrs. M. E. Foster on Nuuanu Avenue. 

Cycadaceae. 3 

as a pot plant. There are possibly two more species cultivated in 
Honolulu : Cycas circinalis and Cycas media; these two seem to dif- 
fer from each other only in that the latter branches, sometimes from 
the base, while the former has a simple stem with open loose whorls 
of leaves; both attain a height of fifteen or more feet in this Terri- 
tory, while in some regions they reach a height of thirty-five feet, 
with trunks a foot and a half in diameter. A form of >tarch called 
Sago is obtained from the trunk of this plant, though the true Sago 
is derived from the Sago palm (Metroxylon Sagus) a palm indigen- 
ous in the East Indian Archipelago where it flourishes in low marshy 
situations. Sago is used principally as an article of diet, it is very 
nutritious and easily digested, and does not contain irritative prop- 
erties. Sago is derived not only from the true Sago palm and from 
the so-called Sago palm, which is our Cycas revoluta, but also from 
a number of other plants belonging to different families. 

Cycas circinalis L. 
Plate I. 

Cycas circinalis L. is a palm-like tree of small stature differing 
from the so-called Sago palm Cycas revoluta in its taller stem and 
large open crown of leaves which are much longer than those of Cycas 
revoluta, often measuring six and a half feet. The trunk is usually 
single but often branching when the top has been cut off. There seems 
to be a doubt in regard to the systematic value of Cycas media, a 
species supposedly cultivated in these Islands. The latter has been 
described from Australia and is said to reach often a height of thirty 
to sixty feet and is rarely branched. The male cones of the latter 
are of various sizes but apparently smaller than in Cycas circinalis; 
otherwise the two species resemble each other. 

Cycas circinalis bears nuts which are poisonous in their crude 
state, but are used for food by the natives of Guam after having 
been macerated in water and cooked. It is a native of the Moluccas 
but is found wild in Guam and in the mountains of the Alalabar 
coast in India and also in Ceylon. The trunk also contains Sago. 
The seeds are so poisonous that even the water in which the seeds 
have been steeped is fatal to chickens. The seeds are usually ground 
into flour, and cakes are made which are baked like tortillas on a 
griddle. This is practiced in Guam as well as by the Cinghalese of 
Ceylon but only in times of scarcity. Among the Cinghalese it is re- 
puted a remedy for some disorders. 

The beautiful growth of this Cycas makes it a very desirable 

4 Cycadaceae-Pinaceae. 

ornamental plant, much more so than the rather stunted looking CycOs 
revoluta. The writer has observed Cycas circinalis growing wild in 
Guam, where they reach the water's edge, growing in calcareous 
sandy soil. The luxuriant growth and beautiful fronds recall pic- 
tures of the flora of the carboniferous age, in which this family played 
such an important part. The Cycadaceae form one of the oldest 
groups of plants, antedating the conifers. 


The Pixe Family. 

The family Pinaceae is represented in the Hawaiian Islands by a 
number of introduced species belonging mainly to Cupressus (Cy- 
presses), Cryptomeria, Araucaria and Agathis; of the first named 
genus several species have been planted here, but mainly at the higher 
levels, as for instance, at Ulupalakua, and Olinda, Maui. The same 
may be said of Cryptomeria, of which genus the species japonica from 
Japan has been extensively planted on the uplands of Haleakala and 
in other similar places in the Territory. 

Of Cupressus there are in cultivation : C. sempervirens, originally 
a native of Persia but now cultivated in many countries and easily 
recognized by its tall sharply cone-shaped growth ; it is said to reach 
an age of more than two thousand years. 

C. funebriSj the mourning Cypress, can also be found; it differs 
from the former in its spreading crown and drooping branches. It 
is a native of China and North East India, but has been in cultivation 
in Europe since 1848. Mention must also be made of other culti- 
vated species belonging to the Pint Family, as for example, Podocar- 
pus neriifolia D. Don. and several species of Dacrydium which may 
be found on private premises about Honolulu. The two genera 
which, however, concern us most are Agathis and Araucaria, which 
are treated separately. 

Agathis australis Salisb. 

Kauri Pixe (Syn. Dammara australis). 

The Kauri is called the monarch of the forests of New Zealand, 
and while it does not reach such dimensions as its rival the giant 
Sequoia of California, it excels the Sequoia in its timber value, pos- 
sessing many more good qualities than any other known pine. In 
its native home it reaches a height of one hundred to one hundred 
twentv feet, with a diameter of four to twelve feet and over, the 

Pinaceae. 5 

main arms are spreading, and themselves often two feet thick. The 
green leaves are thick, broad, and leathery, and have no resemblance 
to the needles of pines of the northern hemisphere. The bark of the 
Kauri abounds in resin, which exudes from the slightest wound. The 
young leaves are flat and narrow, while the mature ones are much 
shorter and more closely set. The male and female flowers are 
borne on the same tree, but in separate cones ; the male catkins are 
cylindrical and appear in the axils of the leaves, the scales are really 
anthers or pollen sacs. The female cone is at the end of the branch, 
and carries on the upper surface of each scale a single ovule. In fruit 
the cone is almost spherical in outline and about three inches in 
diameter. Gigantic specimens can be found in New Zealand with 
trunks of twenty-four feet in diameter with an estimated age of 
four thousand years. 

The Kauri, which wasl also termed Coivrie Spruce when first in- 
troduced into England, is remarkable for its soundness of timber, 
and no tree is known to retain its timber in a good condition so 
long after the greatest rate of growth has been passed. 

In New Zealand several varieties are distinguished, such as 
Red Kauri, White Kauri, Black Kauri and Soft Kauri. 

Red and White Kauri can be taken from the same tree ; the for- 
mer from the heartwood, which is much denser, the white from next 
the sapwood. 

The timber is yellowish white, straight in grain, clean and of a 
silky aspect, of great strength and elasticity. Kauri logs which had 
been lying in the forest for over forty years were found to be per- 
fectly sound after the vegetation with which they were completely 
overgrown was removed. 

It is a lowland tree and becomes scarce at elevations over one 
thousand feet in New Zealand. In Honolulu the Kauri pine may 
be found in various residential grounds, the largest one in Mrs. 
Foster's premises on Nuuanu Avenue. Specimens may be found in 
the grounds of the Board of Agriculture on King Street and in the 
premises of the Spreckels home on Punahou Street. It was prob- 
ably first introduced by Dr. Hillebrand. 

All parts of the tree are charged with resin, which is at first 
colorless turpentine but solidifies when coming in contact with the 
atmosphere. This resin is known as Kauri gum. However, the 
resin which reaches the market is not derived from fresh resin se- 
cured by wounding the trees, but from fossil resin dug up from 
territories which were once covered by Kauri forests, this fossil resin 
is of a rich brown color, while fresh resin is dull white. It is found 

6 Pinaceae. 

in lumps varying from a few ounces to several pounds. The more 
transparent resin is used as a substitute for amber, while the ordi- 
nary gum is used in the manufacture of varnishes. 

Araucaria excelsa R. Br. 
Norfolk Island Pine. 

The genus Araucaria was established in the year 1789 by the 
Botanist Jussieu, who used the vernacular name Auracanos which 
had been applied to one of these trees by the inhabitants of Chile 
in South America. There are quite a number of species, A. Cun- 
ninghamiij A. Bidwillii, both of which are peculiar to Australia, 
while A. excelsa is peculiar to Norfolk Island, and A. Cookii is 
only known from the Isle of Pines off New Caledonia and from 
New Caledonia proper. The name Norfolk Island Pine is applied 
in Honolulu promiscuously to the four species cultivated here, but 
should be applied only to A. excelsa, as the other species have ver- 
nacular names of their own. The Norfolk Island Pine 1 is one of the 
handsomest of the genus and exceeds often two hundred feet in 
height in its native country. It is closely allied to A. Cunninghamii 
and A. Cookii, though the latter have smaller cones; it is one of the 
most symmetrically growing Araucarias, and tall specimens may be 
found in various places about Honolulu. The Araucarias have sterile 
branches, the leaves of which are of two forms on a few species, as 
A. Cunninghamii, while they are uniform on A. Bidwillii. 

On sterile branches the leaves are laterally compressed, sickle- to 
awl-shaped, while those of the fertile branches are triangular-lance- 
olate and shorter than those of the sterile branches. 

In the United States there are about fifteen species of Araucar- 
ias in cultivation; the most popular is A. exceisa and its varieties, 
mostly horticultural varieties. According to Bailey about two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand potted plants of the species are sold in the 
States, nearly all being imported in a young state from Belgium, es- 
pecially from Ghent, where the propagation of this species is made a 
specialty. Not only are they exported to the United States, but the 
world supply of this species for many years came exclusively from 
that source. 

The Araucarias can be propagated from seeds as well as cut- 
tings, and fine specimens can be grown from the latter when they 
are taken from the leading shoots instead of side shoots, and planted 
in sand. 

Pinaceae. 7 

Araucaria Cunninghamii Ait. 
Richmond River or Hoop Pine. 

Araucaria Cunninghamii is a pyramidal tree with a somewhat 
flattened crown and attains a height of one hundred fifty to two 
hundred feet in its native land, the north coast district of New South 
Wales and the southern coast of Queensland ; it is one of the tallest 
Australian pines. The bark of this tree is quite characteristic, hav- 
ing the appearance of horizontal bands, whence it derived its name 
Hoop Pine. The leaves are of two different kinds; they are crowded 
and spirally arranged, prickly, and only about one-third of an inch 
long, while on the lower branches they are spreading, vertical, and 
often more than an inch in length. 

The male amenta or catkins are cylindrical and two to three 
inches long. The cones are egg-shaped and about four inches long 
and three inches wide. The wood of this pine is very valuable and 
is largely used for furniture; it is whitish in color and has often 
beautifully grained markings. Owing to its inability to stand ex- 
posure it is valued mainly for indoor work, and is extensively used 
for flooring and lining boards. The bark contains an oleo-resin and 
gum which have not yet been used commercially. The aboriginal 
name of this pine is Coarong, while besides the above mentioned 
vernacular names it is known in Australia also as Moreton Bay 
Pine, and Colonial Pine. 

Araucaria Cookii R. Br. 

This species, which was named for Captain Cook, the great cir- 
cumnavigator, is a native of New Caledonia and Isle of Pines off the 
coast of New Caledonia. 

It is similar in habit to Araucaria excelsa, but the lower branches 
tend to fall off. The leaves are alternate and rather distant, broad 
and slightly decurrent — that is, they have a tendency to run down 
the stem ; the old leaves are densely imbricated or overlap as the 
tiles of a roof, they are short, egg-shaped and not pointed. 

In its native habitat the tree reaches a height of often two hun- 
dred feet with a perfectly straight shaft. 

Araucaria Bidwillii Hook. 

Plate II. 

This valuable forest tree of the coast district of Queensland can 
be found cultivated in Honolulu though the specimens are not so 

Plate II. 

Araucaria Bidwillii Hook. 
Growing on Nuuanu Avenue. 

large as those of the other species. It appears to have first been 
made known to white men in 1838. A Mr. J. L. Bidwill took 
material of this tree with him to England and there the tree was 
described by Sir William Hooker. 

In its native habitat the tree reaches a height of one hundred feet 
and is now much cultivated on account of its symmetrical shape and 
its whorled branches with spirally arranged leaves ; the latter are 
of one kind, have no leaf stalk and are ovate-lanceolate in outline, 
not quite two inches long, and end in a very sharp point. The male 
catkins are arranged at the ends of the branches, are over six inches 
long and half an inch wide. The fruit cones are exceedingly large, 
twelve inches long and nine inches wide, and cones ten pounds in 
weight occur occasionally on trees in their native land. While they 
have as yet not flowered in Honolulu, they have borne fruit at 
Ulupalakua, Maui, and seeds have been secured there for plantings. 

The aborigines of Queensland call the tree Bunya or Bon-Yi, 
and eat the nuts, of which they are very fond. The wood is of a 
pale color and is used for similar purposes as that of the Hoop Pine. 


Covered-Seeded Plants. 

This class includes all plants whose seeds are contained in a 
closed fruit, which is very various in structure and form. The 
largest number of trees belong to this class. They are again made 
up of two subclasses: 1. Monocotyledones, in which the embrionic 
plant within the seed possesses but a single leaf; the leaves are parallel- 
veined as in the banana, and gingers. II. Dicotyledones, in which 
the embryo has two seed-leaves ; the leaves are pinnately or palmately 

Subclass Monocotyledon es. 

This subclass is distinguished by the simplicity of the stem- 
structure, the fibro-vascular bundles are arranged in a single column 
without a pith or medullary rays. There are no rings or radiating 
markings in the wood. A bark is absent, the outer portion being of 
the same structure as the inner, with the exception that the bundles 
are closer and more compact. Most of the plants belonging to this 
class are herbaceous, as for example, the grasses, bananas, lilies, etc., 
The Pandani and Palms are the arborescent species represented in 
our introduced flora. 

10 Pandanaceae-Palmae. 


The family Pandanaceae is represented in Honolulu by the horti- 
cultural species Pandanus I eitchii Hort. a native of Polynesia, and 
the Hawaiian as well as cosmopolitan species Pandanus tectorius Sol. 
and a few of its varieties. Pandanus Rockii Alartelli from the Isl- 
and of Palmyra has been more or less extensively planted both on 
Oahu and Molokai. The first mentioned species has variegated 
leaves and forms large round clumps when left unmolested, the two 
others have bright green leaves and are more erect; the latter is 
slender in habit. 

Pandanus sylvestris Bory. 

Pandanus sylvestris, an elegant species, is also cultivated in Hono- 
lulu. It is easily distinguished by the long pedunculate (stalked) 
syncarpium, which is depressed-globose, and composed of about thirty 
drupes, somewhat compressed and pyramidal in outline, the apex is 
slightly concave. A reddish or rose-colored ring surrounds the drupe 
at about the middle or part of adherence with the other drupes. 
The branching habit of this species is rather peculiar, the branches 
are horizontal and decrease in length upwards, the whole tree having 
the appearance of a pyramid. 

It is a native of the Island of Reunion, but is cultivated in many 
botanic gardens. In Honolulu a mature specimen grows in the 
grounds of Lunalilo Home, near the entrance. 


The Palms. 

The most conspicuous and stately members of the vegetable 
kingdom are unquestionably the palms, one of the largest and most 
beautiful of all natural orders. The palms indeed supply many of 
our wants and minister largely to our comforts. The palms have 
been termed "The princes of the vegetable kingdom;" this title is, 
however, only a poetical one and is for several reasons objectionable. 
They are not placed pre-eminently at the head of the vegetable king- 
dom but occupy a more or less inferior position in that classified 
organization known as the Natural System of Plant Families. They 
belong to the same great division as the grasses, rushes, and lilies, 
etc., standing intermediate between the highest and lowest forms of 
plants. In their outward structure as well as in their internal ar- 
rangement they come nearest to the grasses, which, in contradistinc- 
t'on to the palms, have been termed by Linnaeus the Plebeians. 

Palmae. 1 1 

The stranger's attention is of course first of all drawn to the 
magnificent palms found throughout Honolulu, where as many as 
sixty to eighty species of these so-called princes hold forth. 

The nature of this work forhids going into detail concerning 
every species of palm found cultivated in this Territory, as it would 
make a book in itself. Many have been introduced in recent years 
by enthusiastic horticulturists and the number of species found in 
the Territory now will probably amount to well over a hundred. 
Many of them, however, are as yet small plants and will be passed 
over without comment. 

The writer wishes to call attention to the fact that in Hawaii 
there is a single indigenous genus (Pritchardia) , represented by about 
eleven or twelve species growing wild in isolated regions in the moun- 
tains of these Islands. The genus Pritchardia is strictly speaking an 
oceanic genus with most of its species occurring wild in this Terri- 
tory. Only one foreign species, Pritchardia pacifica Seem, et Wendl., 
a native of Fiji, is here in cultivation. 

Mention must be made of various palms which are under cultiva- 
tion in Honolulu but of which only very few, or sometimes only a 
singly specimen may be found. The most noteworthy and handsome 
of these are described below. Actinophloeus Macarthuri Becc, com- 
monly known as Kentia; it is a soboliferous palm of great beauty but 
cannot endure strong wind on account of its fragile narrow stems. 
Two specimens may be seen at the entrance to Mrs. F. J. Lowrey's 
grounds corner of Victoria Street on the Punahou car line ; another 
much stronger and fruiting specimen on King Street near the en- 
trance to Kalakaua Avenue. 

Hoivea Belmoreana Becc, and Howea Forsteriana Becc, are both 
commonly known as Kentias. Of the former a fine specimen is in 
Mrs. Foster's grounds on Nuuanu Street, and of the latter only a 
single mature one, in Mrs. Jaeger's place on King street. Hoicea 
Belmoreana differs from H. Forsteriana in the leaves, the segments 
of which are turned upward, and in the long flowering spike, wmich 
is produced singly in the axil of the leaf; while in H. Forsteriana 
the leaf segments are turned downward and the much shorter flower- 
ing spikes are produced in pairs or even groups of three from one 
leaf axil. Both are natives of Lord Howe Islands, from w T hich name 
the generic name is derived. 

Pinanga Kuhlii Bl., a very handsome, broad leafed, soboliferous 
palm, a native of the East Indian Archipelago, is found planted out 
in Mrs. Jaeger's premises. Didymosper/na (Ifallichia) distichurn, 
the Sikkim Palm is exceedingly curious on account of its distichous 

Plate III. 

Phoenix dactylifera L. 
Date Palms in Moanalua Gardens. 

Palmae. 13 

leaves, being arranged on two sides of the trunk, only, as in the 
Traveler's Tree. A specimen, now fairly well grown has been 
planted by Mr. Jordan on Wyllie street; it is the only one in the 
Territory. Copernicia cerifera Mart., the W ax Palm, is a native of 
northern Brazil, where it grows either isolated or aggregated in 
immense forests. It attains a height of twenty to forty feet. The 
leaves are covered by a glaucous bloom, and are arranged so as to 
form an almlost perfect ball. A single specimen which flowers and 
fruits profusely, is in cultivation ; it grows in the grounds of Mr. 
W. Macfarlane on Pensacola Street. Archontophoenix alexandrae 
W. et D., the Alexandra Palm of Australia, is quite plentiful in Hono- 
lulu. It is a tall pinnately leafed palm with short inflorescence and red 
subglobose fruits. Specimens occur in private grounds ; two rather 
tall ones may be seen on King Street near the Board of Agriculture 
and Forestry building, and others on the premises of Lunalilo Home. 

A few specimens of Trachycarpus excelsa, a small Chinese fan 
palm with blackish fibre around the base of the leaf stalks are also 
present in Honolulu but seem not to thrive well in this climate as 
they require a cold winter season. Specimens are located at the 
Queen's Hospital grounds, on Mrs. Jaeger's premises, and one or 
two on Wyllie Street in Nuuanu Valley. Closely related to it is 
Chamaerops humilis Linn, of which there are one or two specimens 
in cultivation in Honolulu. It is the Dwarf Fan Palm of southern 
Europe where it grows in abundance ; it was known to the Romans 
under the name P.alma probably on account of a certain resemblance 
of its leaves to the hand (palma). Later on the name was adopted for 
other members of the order until it was employed as the Family 
name of this wonderful group of plants. 

Chamaerops mncrocarpa Juss. is also under cultivation in Hono- 
lulu ; fine specimens may be seen in Mr. Jordan's grounds on Wyllie 

Phoenix dactylifera L. 

The Date Palm. 

Plate III. 

The Date Palm is usually a stately tree with a tall trunk marked 
with the scars of fallen leaves. The leaves are pinnatisect, bearing 
linear segments, the lower segments often assuming the appearance 
of spines ; they are moreover conduplicate at the base, a peculiarity 
distinguishing Phoenix from all other genera of palms. The flowers 
groW on branched spadices, which appear in the axils of the leaves 
and are dark vellow and dioecious. In order to make the tree bear 

Plate IV. 

Coccothrinax argentea (Lodd.) Sargent 

Cuban Palm. 
Growing in St. Louis College grounds. 

Palmae. 15 

plentifully it is necessary to have recourse to artificial fertilization. 
The dates van considerably in shape and size from round to oblong, 
they are a yellowish-brown drupe with generally only one seed. 

Phot nix dactylifera L. has been cultivated in Asia, Africa, and 
Europe from time immemorial and it is as yet not known whetner 
the East Indian species Phot nix sylvestris Roxb. is a wild state of 
Phot nix dactylifera L. Both of these species occur in Honolulu, but 
as they are hybridised by insects such a variety of hybrids exist that 
it is absolutely impossible to distinguish one from the other. The 
other species are in a similar chaos with the exception of Phot nix 
spinosa Thon. and Phoenix reclinata Jacq. and some botanists do 
not make any distinction even between these two. The two latter 
species occur in Honolulu and the difference between them seems 
quite evident. Phoenix spinosa is apparently soboliferous, that is it 
sends out shoots from the old root-stock, the trunk is slender and 
taller than in Phoenix reclinata, which has a rather short trunk and a 
different crown of leaves. Both are natives of the Cape of Good 

Phoenix pusilla Gaertn., a rather handsome species, a native of 
Ceylon, has been planted in Kapiolani Park, in a group near the race 
track on the ocean side. It has a short gray trunk and stiff blue green 
leaves; the drupes are short and thick. In Honolulu there is a male 
specimen of Date Palm of low stature which the writer refers to 
Phot nix humilis. It occurs in Mrs. Jaeger's grounds on Beretania and 
Punahou streets. It is exceedingly handsome and deserves to be cul- 
tivated. There seems to be little difference between Phoenix 
farinifera Willd. and Ph. humilis Royle, both of which have short 
trunks and are soboliferous. 

Of Phoenix spinosa there are only two specimens in Honolulu 
so far as the writer is aware, and both occur on the grounds of 
a private residence on Wilder Avenue near Pensacola Street. The 
fruit is borne profusely and is smaller, perhaps, than any other 
date. Phoenix reclinata Jacq. is represented by quite a number of 
specimens, the largest of which can be found in the Queen's Hos- 
pital grounds to the left of the main entrance under old date trees. 
Others are scattered over town in public gardens and private 

Phoenix canariensis Hort., the most commonly planted date tree in 
California is of ornamental value only ; strange to say there are only 
about three or four specimens in Honolulu. Two, the oldest speci- 
mens, can be found in Mrs. Jaeger's grounds and others in the 
premises of the late Governor Cleghorn at Waikiki. It is easily 

Plate V. 

Corypha umbraculifera L. 

A fine specimen of the Talipot Palm in Mrs. Jaeger's premises on 

King Street. 

Palmae. 17 

distinguished from the other dates by its very stout trunk which 
reaches several feet in diameter. The leaves are dark green and 
narrower than those of the ordinary date palm. It is a native of 
the Canary Islands, as the specific name implies. 

Rhapis flabelliformis Ait. 
Ground Rattan Palm, or Bamboo Palm. 

Rhapis flabelliformis is a low palm with caespitose roots and 
reed-like trunks, the leaves are palmate and terminal, and their peti- 
oles, especially at the base, are surrounded by a fibrous matting. The 
yellowish flowers are polygamo-dioecious. The Bamboo Palm is a 
native of the Island of Liu Kiu and Southern China, and is culti- 
vated in oriental, especially Japanese, gardens for ornamental pur- 
poses. In Honolulu quite a number of specimens have been planted 
out in private premises, as well as in public parks. The oldest and 
tallest are in the late Governor Cleghorn's private garden at Waikiki. 
Its slender trunks are used to manufacture walking-sticks. 

Rhapis Cochinchinensis Mart, is probably also under cultivation 
in Honolulu. 

Coccothrinax argentea (Lodd.) Sarg. 

Cuban Palm. 

Plate IV. 

The genus Coccothrinax consists of about sixteen species all of 
which occur in the floral regions of the Antilles or West Indies. 

The silvery Coccothrinax is one of the handsomest species, but 
must be protected from wind, otherwise it will have a torn and 
ragged appearance. 

It can be easily recognized by its slender, graceful stem and 
terminal fan leaves which are silvery-gray underneath. The green 
or greenish-yellow flowers are borne in axillary, branched spadices; 
the fruit is blackish-blue, round and one-seeded. 

The leaves of the Coccothrinax argentea are manufactured into 
baskets and all kinds of. wicker-work besides being employed for the 
famous chip hats in the West Indies, and are made into brooms in 
the Isthmus of Panama whence the tree has received the name of 
"Palma de escoba" or Broom Palm. 

In Honolulu it is planted for ornamental purposes only and 
can be found in a great many residential grounds about the city. 
It is especially suited for planting in groves in well protected places. 

Plate VI. 

Livistona chinensis Mart. 
Chinese Fan Palm in the Pleasanton Hotel grounds. 

Palmae. 19 

Of late a number of species of Thrinax have been introduced, 
as for example Thrinax parviflora Swartz and Thrinax radiata Lodd., 
but as the specimens are quite small as yet they will not be com- 
mented upon. Coccothrinax barbadensis (Lodd.) Becc. may also 
be found. 

Corypha umbraculifera L. 

The Talipot Palm. 

Plate V. 

The Talipot Palm is one of about five species belonging to the 
genus Corypha. It has a ringed trunk, generally remarkably 
straight and reaching a height of over eighty feet. Its leaves are of 
gigantic size if not the largest fan leaves of all palms. The petiole 
is seven feet long and armed with spines on the margins. The blade 
is about six feet long and sixteen feet broad with segments num- 
bering from ninety-five to a hundred, which are again bilobed. The 
flowers are white to cream colored and are borne in huge terminal 
panicles often twenty feet long; hence the palm can flower but once, 
after which it must die. The fruit is a roundish one-seeded drupe. 

This enormous palm is a native of Ceylon and the Malabar 
coast but is now cultivated in most tropical countries. The flower- 
ing time begins usually in the hot season, while the seeds ripen about 
nine or ten months afterwards. Each tree covers about two hun- 
dred superficial feet. 

The leaves of this palm are made into fans, mats and um- 
brellas; the segments were used by the Cinghalese to write on, and 
the sacred Pali texts of the Buddhist literature of Ceylon are all 
written on the leaf segments of this palm which are supposed to 
have withstood the ravages of ages. 

The seeds, which are hard like ivory, are employed in India in 
the manufacture of beads ; they are sometimes colored red and sold 
as coral. The pith of the trunk of this palm yields a kind of Sago, 
it is beaten to flour and baked into cakes. 

There are two specimens in Honolulu; the finest, here illus- 
trated, grows in front of Airs. Jaeger's residence on King Street; 
a small specimen which was kept in a pot but has now been planted 
out in the same grounds, is of the same age as the large specimen. 
Another, and probably older one, with a trunk of about ten feet 
was perhaps the first one introduced into Hawaii. It grows in 
Airs. AI. E. Foster's premises on Nuuanu Street. 

Plate VII. 

Livistona australis Mart. 

Growing on the Government Nursery grounds on Keeaumoku and 

King Streets. 

Palmae. 21 

Livistona rotundifolia Mart. 

The Livistonas are remarkable for their elegant appearance 
and beautiful foliage, but they do not possess many useful qualities 
found in species of other genera. The genus consists of twelve or 
perhaps fourteen species, which are natives of India and Australia 
ranging from Assam and South China to the tropical North and 
sub-tropical East coast of Australia in New South Wales and even 
to Victoria. 

Livistona rotundifolia is a tall palm reaching a height of forty- 
five to sixty feet with a straight smooth trunk, marked with close 
annular scars, the leaves are crowded at the apex, their long stalks 
are armed on the sides with hard sharp teeth ; the leaf-blade is 
orbicular, cleft into numerous segments, one to two inches wide, 
which are again cleft at the apex into two lanceolate pointed lobes, 
two inches long; the base is heart-shaped and about three feet in dia- 
meter. The inflorescence is axillary, drooping, and over three feet 
long. The flowers are small, sessile and numerous ; the fruit is glo- 
bose, somewhat fleshy, yellowish-red, and about half an inch or more 
in diameter. 

This palm is a native of Celebes in the Sunda Straits, but is 
cultivated in many tropical countries. The wood and leaves are 
employed for various economic purposes by the natives of Celebes. 

In Honolulu this palm is sometimes met with, but is not so com- 
monly cultivated as Livistona chinensis Mart. The finest specimens 
can be seen on Pensacola Street opposite the Makiki cemetery. 
Scattered trees occur here and there, as on King Street, Keeaumoku 
Street, and in the grounds of the Grammar School, the old residence 
of Princess Ruth Kelikelani. 

Livistona chinensis Mart. 

Chinese Fax Palm. 

Plate VI. 

The Chinese Fan Palm is the palm most commonly met with 
in Honolulu. Its trunk is arboreous, gray, nearly a foot in diameter 
and unarmed. The palmate leaves are of a bright green, the 
petioles are furnished with spines at the edge, and copious fibres at 
the base. The white flowers are arranged in axillary panicles. The 
fruit is a drupe of the size of an olive with glaucous hue and 
orange-yellow fruit-flesh. 

It is a native of Eastern Asia, but now most extensivelv cultivated 

Plate VIII. 

Erythea armata (L.) Watson. 

Blue Palm, in fruit, on the grounds of Mr. Jordan's residence, 
Wyllie Street. 

Palmae. 23 

for ornamental purposes in all tropical and subtropical countries. In 
Honolulu nearly every yard has one or more specimens. Livistona 
austral is Mart., a much handsomer palm, is not at all common in 
Honolulu. The best specimens occur in the Government Nursery 
grounds, facing Keeaumoku Street. It differs from the former species 
mainly in the blue, globose seeds, and, as the name implies, is a 
native of Australia. There are a few other species of Livistona in 
cultivation in Honolulu, single specimens occurring in private 
grounds, but as yet not definitely determined. See Plate VII. 

Erythea armata (L.) Watson. 

Blue Palm. 

Plate VIII. 

The Blue Palm is indigenous in lower California and belongs 
to a genus of five species. This extremely handsome and ornamental 
palm has often a trunk of more than two feet in diameter in its 
naked portion while the part covered with the old leaves measures 
eight feet in circumference. The leaves, which are of the fan 
type, are rigid and intensely glaucous, and suborbicular in outline ; 
the leafstalk is nearly four feet long, and very closely armed with 
compressed unequal spines, whence the specific name. The flower- 
ing branches are very long, often six feet or more, and droop to the 
ground when loaded with fruit, as can be seen in the accompanying 
illustration. When in flower this palm is an object of great beauty, 
which is enhanced by the handsome bluish symmetrical fronds. 

It is a native of southern California, where it grows in canyons 
along dry water-courses. In Honolulu there are only two specimens 
in cultivation ; the one figured was introduced by Air. Jordan, in 
whose grounds it grows, the other, a less handsome specimen, may 
be seen in Kapiolani Park near the race track. 

Pritchardia pacifica Seem, et Wendl. 

Fiji Fax Palm. 

Plate IX. 

The genus Pritchardia numbers about sixteen species, twelve of 
which are natives of the Hawaiian Islands, where the writer has 
discovered seven new species, five of which have been described by 
Dr. Beccari of Florence, and one by the writer, the remaining one 
will be described in the near future in a monograph on the Ha- 
waiian species of that interesting genus. 

Plate IX. 

Pritchardia pacifica Seem, et Wendl. 
Fiji Fan Palms. 

Palmae. 25 

Pritcharia pacifica was first described in 1861 and the genus 
named in honor of W. T. Pritchard, author of Polynesian Remin- 
iscences, who was also British Consul in Fiji. 

The Fiji Fan Palm seldom attains a height of thirty feet, its 
trunk is straight, unarmed, and ten to twelve inches in diameter at 
the base. The crown is globular, and composed of about twenty 
leaves, the petioles of which are covered at the base with a mass 
of brown fibre. The blade of the leaf is fan-shaped, usually 
four and a half feet long, and three and a half feet wide. The 
flowers issue from the axils of the leaves and are enveloped in several 
very fibrous, flaccid spathes. The inflorescence never appears below 
the crown, but always in the axils of the upper leaves. The fruit 
is perfectly round, half an inch in diameter, and when mature is of 
a blackish color. 

The Fijians make the leaves into fans which are only used by 
the chiefs, w T hile the common people have to content themselves with 
fans made of a Screw pine or Pandanus. 

The fans are from two to three feet across and have a border 
of flexible wood. The Fijians never employ the leaves as a thatch, 
but the trunk is used for ridge beams. 

The Fiji Fan Palm was probably introduced into the Hawaiian 
Islands in the early seventies, by Dr. Hillebrand. It grows exceed- 
ingly well in Honolulu, and owing to its beautiful shape and leaves 
deserves to be more generally cultivated. It is found here and there 
in residential premises about the city ; the accompanying illustration 
shows a group of this palm in favorable circumstances. 

Washingtonia filifera H. Wendl. 

California Fax-Palm. 

Plate X. 

The genus Washingtonia consists of two or three species and a 
few varieties all of which may however belong to a single variable 
species. W. filifera seems certainly to be distinct from W . robusta 
H. Wendl.. but the status of the third species, W. sonorae Hort., is 
doubtful. All three are peculiar to North America, where they occur 
in the desert regions of Southern California, especially in what is 
known as the Colorado Desert. W. filifera is now commonly met with 
in cultivation, especially in the southern parts of the United States 
and in southern Europe. In Hawaii the species in question has been 
much planted about homes and parks, especially in Kapiolani Park at 
Waikiki. Confusion exists in regard to the nomenclature of this 

Plate X. 

Washingtonia filifera H. Wendl. 

Washington Palm in Kapiolani Park; the smaller palms are 
Livistona chinensis Mart. 

Palmae. 27 

palm and another species known as Washingtonia robusta, also culti- 
vated in Honolulu, but less common. 

If . filifera differs from IV. robusta in the much stouter trunk, 
stirrer leaves and in the leafstalks, which are spiny only at the base, 
while //*. robusta, contrary to what the name implies, has a tall but 
more slender trunk, smaller and flaccid leaves, and petioles armed 
with spines up to the leaf segments. The ligule in IV. filifera is 
triangular in shape, with membranous projections on the margins, a 
peculiarity missing in // . robusta. The latter species may be found 
in several places in Honolulu ; fine specimens occur in the grounds 
of Ainahou, the former residence of the late Governor Cleghorn. 
Single specimens can be seen about town, as on Keeaumoku Street in 
Mr. W. M. Giffard's grounds, on Wyllie Street up Nuuanu Valley, 
in Mrs. Jaeger's garden near Beretania and Punahou Streets, and 
elsewhere. See Plate XI. 

The Washingtonias are desert palms, growing wild in the ex- 
tensive mesas of the Colorado Desert, the soil of which is stony, 
calcareous, clayey or silicious, according to the nature of the rock 
from which the soil is derived. 

The above species were once referred to the genus Brahea and 
even to Pritehardia, a decidedly Polynesian genus, with most of its 
species peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands. 

Sabal Blackburniana Glazebrk. 

The trunk of this species of Palmetto is columnar-cylindrical, 
thick, and reaches a height of about forty feet, and a diameter of 
over one and a half feet. The trunk is naked, that is not clothed 
with the bases of the petioles. 

The leaves are suborbicular and exceedingly large, w T ith many 
segments, and a petiole of seven feet in length. The spadix is much 
shorter than the fronds, and branches three times, with the flowers 
densely set. The flowers are relatively large; the black shiny 
fruits are the largest in the genus. They are obpyriform, the vertex 
is rounded, while the base is very pointed, and symmetrical. The 
seeds are brown shining, globose and depressed. 

This species occurs as a native exclusively in the Bermuda Isl- 
ands but has been planted in gardens a great deal owing to its 
beauty and ornamental value. It is one of the most distinct species 
of the genus Sabal which possesses about eighteen species. It differs 
from Sabal palmetto in its large dimensions, short spadix and ob-pear 
shaped fruits. This species is much less common in Honolulu than 

Plate XI. 

Washingtonia robusta H. Wendl. 
Another species of Washington Palms in Ainahou, Waikiki. 

Palmae. 29 

Sabal palmetto. One fairly good specimen can be seen in the 
Capitol grounds. 

Sabal Palmetto Lodd. 

Palmetto Palm. 
Plate XII. 

The genuine Palmetto reaches a height of sixty feet in its native 
home, begins flowering rather early, and has the trunk clothed with 
the old fronds, the petiole of which, especially the broad base, is 
divided into two divaricating parts. The leaves are suborbicular and 
have many segments (about eighty). The spadix forms large panicles 
which are drooping when in flower and are reflex-curved when in 
fruit. The fruits are perfectly spherical, slightly less than half an 
inch in diameter; the seeds are globose-depressed and hemispherical 
in the upper part. 

The Palmetto is widely diffused over the United States extending 
from North Carolina to Florida. It is cultivated in Europe and 
other subtropical countries. In Honolulu it is much more common 
than Sabal Blackburmana. The specimen here illustrated occurs on 
the grounds of the Queen Emma home on Nuuanu Avenue. Others 
may be found on Beretania Street and King Street in various resi- 
dential) grounds, the Government Nursery and in the Punahou 
grounds along the stone wall facing Manoa road. The Palmetto is 
a useful palm. The young leaf-shoots in the center of the palm are 
edible and it is probably this species of which Martius writes that the 
soldiers of Panfllio di Narvaez kept alive upon for fourteen days 
during an exploration of Florida in the year 1528. 

The young leaves are employed in hat making, being first bleached 
in a solution of oxalic acid and exposed to sulphur vapors. A wine 
is obtained from this palm and the fruits are eaten by the natives 
as well as by the birds, the latter being probably responsible for 
the wide geographical distribution of the tree. 

This palm is grown and reproduced very easily and does excep- 
tionally well in swampy ground. A small stemless Sabal is also under 
cultivation in Honolulu. It is known scientifically as Sabal Adansoni 
Guerns., and has an underground rhyzome and only few fronds. 
Mature specimens may be seen at Haleiwa in the hotel grounds, 
and on Mrs. Jaeger's premises on King Street, to the left of the 
entrance. It is a native of the United States, extending from. North 
Carolina to Florida, Arkansas and Texas where it inhabits inundated 
regions and can also be encountered near the sea. Many forms of 

Plate XII. 

Sabal Palmetto Lodd. 
Palmetto Palm on the grounds of Queen Emma Home, Nuuanu Avenue. 

Plate XIII. 

Latania Loddigesii Mart. 

Female specimen, growing on the grounds of Hawaiian Sugar 
Planters' Experiment Station. 

Plate XIV. 

Borassus flabelliformis L. 
Palmyra Palm in Kapiolani Park. 

Palmae. 33 

this species exist. Its variability in the States is similar to that of 
Phoenix spinosa in Africa and Chamaerops humilis in Europe. The 
polymorphism of this palm may principally be observed in the vegeta- 
tive organs. It adapts itself to almost any climate and thrives in 
the hottest regions in India as well as in regions with frost. 

Latania Loddigesii Mart. 

(Syn. Latania glaucophylla Hort.) 

Plate XIII. 

Latania Loddigesii is a dioecious palm reaching a height of fifty 
feet. The tomentose leafstalk of this species is three to four and a 
half feet long, the margins of the leaf segments are entire in the ma- 
ture plant but spiny in the young plant, which is reddish. The old 
specimens are very glaucous or bluish green. The blade is three to 
five feet long, slightly tomentose on the veins beneath and tinged with 
red. The male spadix is five and a half feet long with eight to twelve 
branches. The female spadix is three and a half to four feet long with 
five to six branches. The drupe is obovate pear-shaped, trigonous, two 
and a half inches long by one and three-fourths broad, and contains 
usually three seeds. The seed is elongate obovoid with a central ridge 
with tree-like branching in the upper third. 

This very robust and hardy species is a native of Mauritius but 
like many of the ornamental species has been cultivated throughout 
the tropics. When young it makes a very decorative pot-plant and 
resembles Latania commersonii J. F. Gmel. greatly. 

In Honolulu numerous specimens occur; it is easily distinguished 
by its large glaucous-whitish fan leaves and large pear-shaped fruits. 

Borassus flabelliformis L. 

Palmyra Palm. 

Plate XIV. 

The Palmyra Palm is one of the species of the genus Borassus 
which enjoys the widest geographical distribution. It ranges from 
the northeastern part of Arabia through India to Ceylon and Burmah 
where immense groves of this remarkable plant may be found on 
the banks of the Irrawaddy below the capital of Burmah. From 
Burmah it extends through Netherlandish India to New Guinea. 
A mature specimen is from, sixty to seventy feet high with a trunk 
about five and a half feet in circumference at the base. The stiff 

Plate XV. 

Coelococcus carolinensis Dingl. 
A Caroline Ivory-nut Palm on Mr. Scott's premises in Hilo, Hawaii. 

Palmae. 35 

fan-shaped leaves extend from the base to the top of the tree up to 
forty feet in height when undisturbed, only the older specimens 
showing a trunk. The petioles become from three to four feet long 
and are armed with spines on the edges, being silicious and ser- 
rated. The foliage is distributed in three spiral rows around the 
trunk; the blade has from seventy to eighty rays and each tree has 
from twenty-five to forty fresh green leaves at a time. The male 
and female flowers are produced on different trees and appear about 
the twelfth or fifteenth year after planting. The sex of the tree 
cannot be determined till that time. The fruits of the Palmyra 
Palm vary considerably on different trees. They fall to the ground 
when ripe. 

The Tamils of India enumerate eight hundred and one uses 
for this species. The flower stalks are tapped for toddy similar to 
the wine palm, the fruits roasted or eaten raw. A fibre is ex- 
tracted from the leafstalks and is used for rope and twine making, it 
is exceedingly strong and wiry. Toddy (the sap) is boiled down to 
sugar, the quantity of sugar made from the juice of this palm is very 
considerable. The peduncles are the portion tapped, and tapping is 
done only before flowering has begun, the sap is collected in pots 
tied to the cut peduncle. The germinated seeds, that is the young 
seedlings, are eaten as a vegetable. The outer shell of the trunk is 
exceedingly hard, consisting of a solid mass of thick fibro-vascular 
bundles. It is employed for various purposes, and is stated to support 
a greater cross-strain than any other known wood ; the center is soft. 
In medicine the sap plays an important part and is used as a laxa- 
tive; a poultice of the toddy with added rice flour is a valuable 
stimulant application to gangrenous ulcerations and carbuncles. 
Other parts of the palm have also valuable medicinal properties. 

Only three specimens are known to the writer in Honolulu ; the 
best occuring in Kapiolani Park (see illustration). The others are 
in the grounds of the Board of Agriculture and Mrs. Jaeger's 
premises respectively. None of these specimens have as yet flowered. 
The specimen in Kapiolani Park was unfortunately trimmed and 
robbed of its lower leaves by the inexperienced care-taker. 

Coelococcus carolinensis Dingl. 

Caroline Ivory-nut Palm. 

Plate XV. 

The Ivory-nut Palm reaches a considerable height and has stout 
pinnate leaves of a dark green color. The spheroid fruits are about 

Plate XVI. 

Caryota urens L. 

A fruiting Wine or Fish-tail Palm on Mr. Charles Atherton's grounds. 

King Street. 

Pahnae. 37 

three and a half inches in diameter, and are covered with a reddish 
brown, glossy, scaly shell, which fact places the palm into the tribe 
Lepidocarineae. The nuts are of ivory-like texture ; the surface of 
the seed is black and shiny, striped but not furrowed. It is a native 
of the Caroline Islands and according to Brother Mathias Newell of 
Hilo, to whom the writer is indebted for the following information, a 
few of these palms were brought to Hilo by Dr. Wetmore, from 
Micronesia about thirty years ago. One of these he planted on his 
premises where it still stands, but it has not borne fruit as yet. 
Another was given to Miss Ellen Lyman who planted it. This 
specimen bore abundant fruit, but was cut down to make room for 
a building. Mr. Scott of Hilo bought about twelve nuts of this 
species from a sea-captain who came from the South Seas in 1886. 
Only three of these seeds germinated and but one survived. This 
latter, here illustrated, is now a magnificent specimen and bears 
fruit in abundance. 

The nut yields the commercial vegetable ivory and was formerly 
exported from the Caroline Islands to Germany for button making. 
There are no specimens of this palm in Honolulu. 

Caryota urens Linn. 

Wine Palm, Fish-tail Palm. 

Plate XVI. 

Caryota urens L. is the oldest and best known species of the 
genus Caryota. It is a lofty palm with a trunk of often forty feet 
in height and a foot in diameter. The leaves are very large, often 
measuring eighteen to twenty feet in length and from ten to twelve 
across. It is one of the few palms with twice pinnate leaves ; the 
leaflets terminate abruptly somewhat resembling the dorsal fin of 
a fish, whence the name Fish-tail Palm. When it has attained its 
full height it begins to flower near the apex of the trunk, the flowers 
being arranged on long hanging racemes, which are produced in 
downward succession till the palm dies. The reddish fruits are 
globose and fleshy, the seeds are reniform and the sour juice contained 
in the fruit produces an irritation of the skin whence the specific 
name urens meaning stinging. 

It is a native of Malabar, Bengal, Assam and various other 
parts of India where it grows in moist forests. To the natives of 
India this palm is highly valuable on account of the large quantity 
of toddy or palm wine which it yields, and Dr. Roxburgh states that 
the best trees will yield at the rate of a hundred pints in twenty-four 

Plate XVII. 

Arenga saccharifera (Wurmb.) Labill. 
Sugar Palm. 

Palmae. 39 

hours, and the sap continues to How for about a month. When 
fresh the toddy is pleasant, but it soon ferments, and when distilled 
becomes the arrack or gin of India. Sugar is also obtained by boil- 
ing the toddy. The trees are tapped when they are twenty years 
old ; the portion tapped is the Mower stalk. Tapping is continued 
for eight months in the year, till the rainy season commences, the 
trees then become too slippery to be climbed. The trees are how- 
ever not allowed to rest but are tapped till exhausted. The pith 
or farinaceous part of the trunk is valued as sago which is said to 
equal that of the true Sago palm (Metroxylon sagus). It is made 
into bread and boiled into thick gruel. From the leaves a fibre is 
produced called Kittul, which is very strong and is made into ropes 
and other articles. 

The limine Palm was once extensively cultivated in Honolulu 
but the old trees have begun to flower and the majority of them have 
died ; still a goodly number may be observed in private grounds, most 
of them however in a flowering state. As no young palms of this 
species are being grown it will be only a few years at the most 
when this rather handsome species will have disappeared entirely 
from Honolulu. The specimen illustrated grows in Mr. Chas. 
Atherton's grounds on King street. 

Caryota //litis Lour., another species belonging to the genus 
Caryota, is cultivated in Honolulu, but there are only very few 
specimens, the best one occurring in the Mausoleum grounds on Nuu- 
anu Avenue. It differs from the Wine Palm in its soboliferous habit, 
small stature and very thin trunk and has a rather bushy appearance. 
The seeds are much smaller than in the foregoing species. It also is 
a native of India. 

Arenga Saccharifera (Wurmb.) La bill. 

Sugar Palm. 

Plate XVII. 

The Genus Arenga, numbering about; ten species, is distributed 
from tropical Asia and Malay to Australia, with five species in the 

The Sugar Palm, which occurs throughout the Philippines and 

40 Palmae. 

is in cultivation in Honolulu and possibly on Hawaii, is a native of 
India and Malaya. Its stout trunk, marked with rather distant an- 
nular scars reaches a height of thirty to thirty-six feet. The leaves 
are stiff, ascending, and the basal parts and trunk are clothed with 
stout black fibre. 

There are more than a hundred leaflets on each side, which are 
linear, with lobed and variously toothed apex. The stout flowering 
stalks, which are axillary, together with the drooping branches, are 
up to five feet in length. The very abundant fruits of the Sugar Palm 
are globose-depressed, and about two inches in diameter. 

The fibre found at the base of the petiole, is black and re- 
sembles horse hair. It is employed in China in caulking the seams 
of ships, and is also used as tinder for kindling. 

It is also employed for the making of moisture resisting ropes 
and cables. This fibre is known in India as Eju. 

From the interior of the stem sago is procured, which is how- 
ever, inferior to that obtained from the true Sago Palm, but is never- 
theless an important article of food, and is the source of the Java 
Sago. By certain people in India, the young and blanched leaf- 
stalks are eaten as a pickle while the young kernels are made into 
preserves with syrup. 

The sap of the palm, from which wine, sugar, and vinegar are 
prepared, is obtained in the following manner: One of the spadices 
or flowering stalks is, on the first appearance of the fruit, beaten on 
three successive days with a small stick, with the view of bringing 
the sap to the wounded part. The spadix is then cut a little way 
from its root (base) and the liquor which pours out is received in 
pots of earthenware, in bamboos or other vessels. The Sugar Palm 
is fit to yield toddy or palm wine when nine or ten years old and 
continues to yield it for two years at the average rate of three quarts 
a day. After the tree ceases to yield toddy it is cut down and the 
trunk then furnishes the starchy substance known as sago. The 
liquid is at first clear, but becomes turbid, whitish and somewhat 
acid in a short time, acquiring intoxicating qualities. It is in this 
state that great quantities are consumed. To obtain sugar the liquid 
is boiled to a syrup, and cooled in small vessels, the form of which 
it takes, and in this shape is sold in the markets. 

The sugar obtained is dark and greasy, with a peculiar flavor. 

According to an estimate a field of thirty acres planted with 
these trees should produce two thousand four hundred kilograms of 
sugar in a soil quite unfit for any other kind of culture. 

In Honolulu only a few scattered trees of this palm can be found. 

Palmae. 41 

In the Punahou grounds several trees may be observed as well as in 
the grounds of some of the old residences in Honolulu. Its culti- 
vation for ornamental purposes has not been encouraged as it is not 
a very beautiful plant and dies after having flowered for some years. 

Arenga cbtusifolia Mart. 
Plate XVIII. 

This species is closely allied to the Sugar Palm, but differs from 
it in its more slender trunk and its stoloniferous habit — that is, it 
sends out underground rhyzomes which send up young shoots at 
internodes as much as ten feet or more from the parent tree. Thus 
one mature tree may produce quite a number of specimens by vegeta- 
tive reproduction. 

It is much handsomer than the Sugar Palm and much more 
graceful. The trunk is ringed and gray ; the leaves always dark 
green above and dirty white underneath. The flowering spikes are 
pendulous, and in the species in question the male spikes appear near 
the base of the trunk while the female ones are produced in the 
uppermost portion. Like the Sugar Palm it is a native of the Indian 
Archipelago, dense shady forests being its favorite locality. 

In Honolulu it is found only in two places, the handsomest 
specimens are in the grounds of Dr. Hillebrand who undoubtedly 
introduced it, and others are at Waikiki in the late Governor 
Cleghorn's premises. All species of the Arenga flower only once 
during the term of their existence. 

Hyophorbe amaricaulis Mart. 
Bottle Palm. 

The Bottle Palm reaches a height of sixty feet in its native land, 
with a bottle shaped trunk fifteen to twenty-four inches in diameter 
near the base, diminishing slightly upwards and becoming abruptly 
constricted near the base of the leafsheaths. 

The leafsheaths are somewhat trigonal and grooved on the face. 
The leaf consists of forty to sixty pairs of segments about eighteen 
inches long and two broad. The spadix branches in clusters, with 
a main stalk of about a foot. The fruit is elliptical, oblong; the 
seed elliptical and about half an inch long. 

This rather ungainly palm is a native of the Island of Mauritius 
and not known to occur wild elsewhere. It is cultivated in Hono- 
lulu and can be met with quite frequently in private grounds. The 

Plate XVIII. 

Arenga obtusifolia Mart. 

Another species of Sugar Palm in Mrs. M. E. Foster's grounds, 
Nuuanu Avenue. 

Palmae. 43 

specimens in Honolulu are usually less than fifteen feet tall. Two 
can be seen at the entrance to the building of the Board of Agri- 
culture on King Street. 

Hyophorbe Verschaffeltii Wendl. is another species belonging to 
the genus Hyophorbe which is peculiar to the Islands of the Mas- 
carene group. It differs considerably from the Bottle Palm, mainly 
in the trunk, which does not reach such a height nor such a diameter 
and does not seem to bulge, at least not to the extent of the bottle 
palm, and then only a few feet above the ground. The pinnae have 
no prominent lateral nerves as in the former species, and the petiole 
has a distinct yellow line on the back. The drupe is cylindrical- 
oblong, the seed subcylindrical and an inch long. This species is 
quite rare in Honolulu ; the writer knows of only four mature 
specimens, one in the grounds of "The Roselawn" on King Street 
near Keeaumoku Street, the others in Mrs. Jaeger's and Mrs. Foster's 
grounds. Mention must be made of Hyophorbe (Chrysalidocarpus) 
lutescens Hort., a very handsome house palm, but planted out in 
Honolulu in several places. The largest specimen can be seen in 
the Moanalua Japanese Garden, while smaller specimens have been 
planted in the Japanese Consulate grounds on Nuuanu Street. It 
is generally known under the name of Areca lutescens and sold as such 
by horticultural dealers. 

Oreodoxa regia H. B. K. 

Royal Palm. 

Plate XIX. 

The name Oreodoxa which has been taken from the Greek and 
is composed of a double word meaning "mountain" and "glory," has 
been applied to a tropical American genus consisting of five species. 
One is now cultivated in man) tropical countries and is much planted 
in Honolulu. 

The Royal Palm has a whitish stout trunk reaching a height of 
seventy-five to one hundred twenty feet, and is usually swollen in 
the middle, tapering above and below ; the base is also swollen and 
is often twenty-four inches in diameter. The leaves are crowded 
at the apex, their sheaths are elongated and overlapping; the very 
numerous leaflets are narrow and pointed ; the inflorescence is borne 
below the leaf-sheaths. The spadix is large, the branches long, 
slender and drooping, the two cylindrical spathes or flower bracts 
are as long as the spadix or fleshy flowering spike. The flowers are 

Plate XIX. 

Oreodoxa regia H. B. K. 

In the grounds of the old Claus Spreckels residence on Punahou Street. 
The plant to the left is Ravenala madagascariensis. Traveler's Tree. 

Palmae. 45 

small and monoecious. The fruit is a drupe, or stone-fruit, and is 
oval-oblong and violet blue when mature. 

The Royal Palm, a native of Cuba and tropical America is the 
most typical of the genus Oreodoxa and is the most common palm 
in Cuba, where it is similarly used, as in Honolulu, for avenues, a 
purpo.-e to which it is admirably adapted. The peculiarity of this 
palm is that there rises upon the white part of the trunk a grass 
green smooth shaft, appearing like a column placed upon another; 
it is from this green shaft that the leaf-stalk springs. 

It is said in the West Indies, that the broad part of the foot- 
stalks of the leaves, which form a hollow trough, are used by the 
negroes as cradles for their children, and when cut up make ex- 
cellent splints for fractures. 

In Honolulu this palm is one of the most frequently cultivated 
and is especially used along drive-ways as its royal bearing makes it 
especially desirable for such purposes. The picture here reproduced 
shows a portion of the residential grounds of the old Claus Spreckels 
place on Punahou Street. In the immediate foreground is a Traveler's 
tree, to the left a Chinese fan palm and to the right Royal Palms. 
This species has been in the Islands since 1850. 

Oreodoxa oleracea Mart. 
Cabbage Palm. 

The trunk of the Cabbage Palm is not ventricose like that of the 
Royal Palm, but is of even thickness, of large diameter, and reaches 
a height of one hundred fifty feet. The leaf segments are linear- 
lanceolate and pointed, the pinnae are bi-fid at the top, the petiole 
long-sheathing. The spadix appears at the base of the cylinder formed 
by the leaf-sheaths as in the Royal Palm, but of larger dimensions. 
The drupe is incurved, obovoid-oblong while that of the Royal Palm 
is ovoid. The Cabbage Palm is therefore most easily distinguished 
when mature enough for bearing, by its trunk, which does not bulge 
at the middle, its more robust habit, and the obovoid oblong seeds. 

It is a native of the West Indies and is one of the loftiest of all 
Palms. The broad part of the leaf stalks forms a hollow trough 
which is employed as a cradle for the negro children ; when cut up 
it makes excellent splints for fractures. The heart is made into 
pickles, or when boiled is served as a vegetable, hence the name 
Cabbage Palm. 

In Honolulu mature specimens of this stately palm occur only 
in Mrs. M. E. Foster's grounds, once the property of Dr. Wm. 

Pate XX. 

Archontophoenix Alexandrae H. Wendl. et Drude 

Alexandra Palm. 

Growing at Moanalua Gardens. 

Palmae. 47 

Hillebrand, who introduced this tine species. Of late it has been 
grown from seeds, and many trees have been planted out, especially 
in Manoa Valley. 

Archcntophoenix elegans Wendl. et Drude 

(Syx. Seaforthia elegaxs R. Br.) 

Archontophoenix elegans is a very stately palm with an unarmed 
ringed trunk and large pinnatisect leaves with reduplicate eroded 
segments. The flowers are polygamo-dioecious, and are borne on 
branched spadices, and are of a green color. The fruit of this 
species is about a third of an inch in diameter but often longer than 
broad. The albumen is strongly ruminate, often to the very center 
of the seed. 

This handsome species is a native of tropical Australia but has 
been in cultivation in nearly all tropical countries. It is one of the 
palms sold by dealers as a house plant, for which it is well adapted 
on account of its elegant habit. 

Several specimens have been planted out in Honolulu and are 
already bearing an abundance of fruit. Archontophoenix alexandrae 
W. et D., a native of Australia, is, however, much more common in 
Honolulu. See Plate XX. 

Dictyosperma album Wendl. et Drude 

(Syn. D. (Areca) Rubra Hort.) Red Palm 

Plate XXI. 

Dictyosperma album, the so-called Areca rubra or Red Palm of the 
horticulturists, is a stately palm with a trunk forty to fifty feet in 
height and a diameter of eight to nine inches, somewhat dilated at 
the base. The pinnate leaves are eight to twelve feet long and have 
an almost round petiole six to eighteen inches in length. The pinnae 
are two to three feet long, two to three inches broad, have one 
prominent medial nerve, and three lateral ones on each side. The 
veins and margins of the pinnae are green or reddish. In its young 
state it has dark green leaves with deep red margins and veins, the 
redness disappearing in the adult plants. The spadix is two feet 
long with quite reflexed branches twenty to thirty inches in length. 
The fruit is ovoid-oblong, pointed, about half an inch long, and 

This is a very variable species, of which several forms are known 

Plate XXI. 

Dictyosperma album H. Wendl. et Drude 
Red Palm in Queen's Hospital grounds. 

Palmae. 49 

under horticultural names. It is cultivated very extensively in Hono- 
lulu and Hilo; almost every yard having a specimen or two. 

It is a native of the Island of Mauritius, but has become a favorite 
palm in the gardens of many tropical countries. 

Areca Catechu Willd. 

The Betel-nut Palm. 

See Plate LVI. 

The Betel-nut Palm is of elegant growth, rising with a very 
erect and slender trunk to the height of forty or even sixty feet ; 
the summit is a tuft of beautiful dark foliage. The trunk is rarely 
more than six or eight inches in diameter, and is dark green when 
young, becoming dark gray with advanced age. The trunk is ringed 
with the marks formed by the clasping leaf stalks. The tree ripens 
its fruits only once during the year. The long branches with large 
ovate, orange-colored fruits, which are pendant from the upper 
part of the trunk, enhance the beauty of the tree and are in pleasing 
contrast with the dark green pinnate foliage. The exact native home 
of the Betel-nut is not known, but is supposed to be the Sunda Isl- 
ands. Like the Coconut it has been introduced into many tropical 
countries and even into Europe and America where it is grown as 
a hot-house plant. While the species in question is fairly common 
in Honolulu and Hilo, it is not so plentifully cultivated as other 
palms, as for instance, Dictyosperma album. The largest and finest, 
also probably the oldest specimens of the Betel-nut palm can be 
found in Mrs. Mary E. Foster's premises where they were planted 
by Dr. Hillebrand. Any traveler who has even only passed through 
Burmah, Bengal, or other lands and islands inhabited by tribes related 
to the Malayan race could not help but observe the brick-red lips, 
black teeth and otherwise offensive appearance of the mouths of the 
native inhabitants. It is caused by the chewing of the Betel-nut, 
together with lime, tobacco, and an astringent substance known as 
Gambir and the leaves of various species of pepper, as for instance, 
Piper betle, Piper meythisticum (the Hawaiian Aiva). The nut is 
deprived of its fibrous husk, divided or grated, wrapped in the piper 
leaf with a pinch of quicklime and as such is known as the Pan of 
India. It injures the teeth, but has a fine aroma, and the odor it 
imparts to the breath is quite agreeable. It is also stated that Pan 
increases or excites appetite and aids digestion. The active principle 
of the Areca-nut is Arecaine and is a powerful agent for destroying 

Plate XXII. 

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. 
Oil Palm in the Pleasanton Hotel grounds. 

Palmae. 51 

tape-worm. It is highly poisonous, like nicotine, and a half grain is 
sufficient to kill a rabbit in a few moments. 

Elaeis g-uineensis Jacq. 

Oil Palm. 

Plate XXII. 

The genus Elaeis consists of about six or seven species which are 
natives of tropical America and Africa. The name Elaeis is taken 
from the Greek meaning "Olive." 

The true Oil Palm grows erect, is twelve to thirty feet in height 
and bears at the apex of the trunk numerous pinnate leaves ten to 
fifteen feet in length; the leaf-stalks are broad, and serrated. The 
leaflets are numerous, linear lanceolate, pointed, nearly three feet 
long and one to two inches wide ; the male inflorescence is dense, and 
consists of numerous, cylindrical spikes less than half an inch in 
diameter. The female inflorescence is also dense and branched, and 
the fruits are borne in large dense masses. 

The Oil Palm is a native of tropical Africa but is now cultivated 
in many tropical countries. The drupes or fruits of the Oil Palm, 
which are one-seeded, have an oily husk of a bright vermilion or 
more or less yellow color. The fruit of this species yields an oil, 
which is of great economic importance in some regions. 

According to Dr. Vogel* the Africans prepare a palm soup from 
this species, a dish which, when made of boiled palm-nuts only, is 
of a delightful flavor. The natives pick the nuts off young trees 
which have not yet lost any of their leaves, and consider them 
superior to the fruit of older plants; they also cut down the trunks 
to collect palm wine. Two products are exported, the oil derived 
from the reddish exterior of the pulp of the fruit and the kernel 
which is used in Europe for the extraction under pressure of another 
oil, similar to that of the coconut and used for like purposes. 

In Honolulu this palm is not very plentiful and its cultivation 
for ornamental purposes has been neglected on account of the clumsy 
appearance produced by its short, thick trunk. An avenue of these 
palms leads from the main entrance of the Capitol grounds to the 
Capitol building, but they are rarely in fruit now. Single specimens 
may be seen here and there about Honolulu. In the Pleasanton 
Hotel grounds, fairly mature specimens line the driveway from the 
College Street corner, bearing profusely. 

* Hnker's Xiger Flora. 

Plate XXIII. 

Attalea cohune .Mart. 

A Cohune-nut Palm in Moanalua Gardens. Palm to the right is 
Phoenix dactylifera L. 

Palmae. 53 

Attalea Cohune Mart. 

Cohune Nut Palm. 

Plate XXIII. 

The Cohune Nut Palm belongs to the genus Attalea, which num- 
bers about twenty members, all natives of tropical America. The 
species in question is the northernmost of the genus. Its trunk is 
about forty feet high, rarely taller, its leaves are thirty feet long and 
the leaflets three feet in length. The flowering spathes appear be- 
tween the leaves, and bear yellowish flowers, and ovate fruits the size 
of a hen's egg, of a brownish color, containing from one to three 
seeds. The fruits grow in clusters each cluster resembling a huge 
bunch of grapes. 

The Cohune trees yield one crop of nuts each year. An oil is 
extracted from the nuts which is said to be superior to coconut oil : 
the odor is more pleasant. The strongest argument in favor of 
cohune nut oil is that one bottle of the oil extracted is said to burn as 
long as two bottles of oil from the coconut. The leaves are em- 
ployed as thatch, and from the trunk a palm wine is prepared. 

The Cohune is a native of the Isthmus of Panama and is culti- 
vated on account of its grandeur. It is well adapted for street 
planting and rows of this palm present the appearance of the nave 
and aisles of a Gothic Cathedral, the arched leaves meeting overhead 
and producing an imitation of vaulted roofs. 

Quite a number of specimens of this beautiful palm are in 
cultivation in Honolulu, mostly in private grounds. The tallest 
ones occur in Mrs. Foster's premises formerly belonging to the late 
Dr. Wm. Hillebrand, who introduced a great majority of our 
ornamental plants, and is probably responsible for the presence of 
this species in Honolulu. 

Cocos nucifera L. 
Cocoxut Palm. Niu. 

Though the Coconut is indigenous to Hawaii, it is such a land- 
mark in these Islands that it must be considered, even if not within 
the scope of this work. 

The centers of distribution and geographical range are the Islands 
and countries bordering the Indian and Pacific oceans. The Asiatics 
and Polynesians have discovered a number of uses to which it may 
be put which would indicate that they must have been familiar with 
it from time immemorial. The coconut tree attains a height of 

Plate XXIV. 

Cocos plumosa Hook. 
Feathery Coco-Palm, Government Nursery, Young Street. 

Palmae. 55 

nearly a hundred feet, and the gracefully leaning trunk crowned 
by the numerous feathery leaves gives a splendid effect. It favors 
the sand\' shores and does not only endure salt and salt water 
but practically requires it, the salt taking the place of fertilizer. 
While it has been employed by the natives of nearly all countries to 
which it is indigenous, the Hawaiians did not employ it extensively. 

In Hawaii the Coconut does not grow to such luxuriance as in 
the Islands of the South Pacific where the atmosphere is much more 
humid and rains are more frequent. The Coconut Pahn has many 
enemies in Hawaii and one of the most detrimental is the coconut 
leaf roller, to which is due the dilapidated appearance of the leaves, 
Numerous varieties of coconuts are in cultivation and one with 
rather large nuts, known in Honolulu as the Samoan Coconut, 
produces a very short trunk with the nuts almost lying on the 

While in other tropical countries the copra industry is carried 
on at a profit, in Hawaii the number of trees is not sufficient to war- 
rant the collecting of the nuts for copra, and it may seem strange 
to state that the writer has bought coconuts in Europe cheaper than 
here in Hawaii. 

Copra is nothing but the dried kernel of the coconut, which is 
manufactured into soap, butter and oil. about two quarts of oil 
being procured from fourteen or fifteen coconuts. The home of 
the coconut is not known. Some contend that it originated on the 
shores of the Indian Ocean and others that it is a native of America, 
the former theory seems to be much better justified. 

Cocos plumosa Hook. 

The Feathery Cocopalm. 

Plate XXIV. 

Cocos plumosa is an exceedingly handsome species, with a straight 
trunk of medium height. The leaves are pinnate, feathery, ascending, 
and arch gracefully ; the segments are long and narrow and of a 
dark green. The flowers are borne in a drooping spadix. The fruits 
are ovate, pointed, and about an inch long. Cocos plumosa which 
lends itself well to street planting is quite a hardy palm ; it is a native 
of South America, as are most of its congeners which have, how- 
ever, been taken out of the genus Cocos by Dr. O. Beccari and placed 
into new genera, the names of which served as subgeneric ones under 
Cocos. What was known as Cocos Romanzoffiana Cham., is now 

Plate XXV. 

-Slfe- ~-^r u. 

•^^ ^ta^ 


!; : l*., -,^-*^^^^- : ^i^^- 







^ « t&EHvbSI Tl *H MR$ 

-— ^2mi Hsi -- : ■■'•■■'*• '^ ::: '¥i 



Cocos Romanzoffiana Cham. 
On Vineyard Street. 

Palmae-Cyclanthaceae-Musaceae. 5 7 

Arecastrum Romanzojhanum (Cham.). Becc. Of this latter species 
a number of specimens occur about Honolulu, one on Vineyard Street; 
one on Kamehameha Avenue in Manoa Valley, to the left of car 
line switch, and a few but rather poor specimens in Kapiolani Park. 
See Plate XXV. 

Both species are natives of Brazil. Besides these two Cocos there 
are two or three other species in cultivation with pinnate, glaucous 
leaves; their identity is however not established. They have been 
introduced by Mr. Jordan and are now growing (quite mature 
specimens) in his premises on Wyllie Street, Nuuanu Valley. In the 
grounds of Lunalilo Home occurs a species with globose, yellowish- 
pink, edible fruits, which must be referred to Cocos odorata Rodr. 


Of the Family Cyclanthaceae, a close congener and relative of 
the Palm family, which it resembles or equals, in the vegetative 
organs, but allied to the Aroids in its reproductive organs, the 
genus Carludovica is represented only by a single species, Carludovica 
palmata Ruiz, et Pav. the Panama Hat Plant, usually considered 
a palm by the layman. It is a stemless plant, a native of Peru, but 
now cultivated for commercial purposes, the well known Panama 
hats being manufactured from the leaves. Specimens may be seen in 
Mrs. E. A. Jaeger's premises near the entrance. Mention may be 
made of the family Araceae or Taro family of which several orna- 
mental species are under cultivation. The climber with large golden- 
yellow and green leaves which are so frequently seen ascending the 
trunks of Royal Palms and Algaroba trees is Scindapsus aureus 
(Lindl. et Andre) Engl., others are species of Philodendron, Raphi- 
dophora, and Syngonium podophyllum Schott. with five to seven 
pinnatisect leaves. 

Monstera deliciosa Liebm. a huge climber with large perforated 
leaves and edible fruits is a native of Mexico, and is not uncommon 
in the Islands. 


Banana Family. 

This family is represented by three genera, Musa, Ravenala, and 
Strclitzia. To the first belong the different species and varieties of 
Bananas, of which Musa Cavendishii Lamb, the Chinese Banana is 
the most commonlv cultivated. This banana is rather short stemmed 

Plate XXVI. 

Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn. 
Traveler's Trees in the Royal Hawaiian Hotel Grounds 

Musaceae. 59 

and is cultivated by the Chinese in Honolulu ; a small plantation 
can be seen in the swamps along Kalakaua Avenue opposite the Sea- 
side Hotel. The Brazilian Banana, a tall plant, can be found usually 
near dwelling places. For further reference in regard to Bananas 
see: Gerrit P. Wilder, "Fruits of the Hawaiian Islands." 

The Genus Strelitzia is represented by the cultivated species 
Reginae from South Africa, in a few places in Honolulu as Mrs. 
Foster's and Mrs. Jaeger's premises, the former on Nuuanu Avenue, 
the latter on corner of King and Punahou Streets. The genus 
Ravenala, however, is of the greatest interest, and is here treated 
separately. Heliconia metall'ica is also present. 

Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn. 

Traveller's Palm, or Traveller's Tree. 

Plate XXVI. 

The Traveller's Tree or Palm, as it is often erroneously called, 
belongs to the Banana family and has nothing in common with the 
palms. It is a unique and striking-looking tree and reaches a height 
of often forty to fifty feet. As its specific name implies, it is a native 
of Madagascar. Another species of this genus occurs only in Brazil 
and Guiana, South America. 

The Traveller's Tree has been in cultivation for several decades, 
and a few handsome specimens can be found in various gardens and 
residential grounds about Honolulu. It is remarkable for the ar- 
rangement of the leaves, which resemble a huge fan. The leaves are 
often twelve to fifteen feet in length but are more or less torn into 
ribbons like those of the Bananas when planted in exposed situations. 
The name Traveller's Tree has been given it on account of its 
supposed service to travellers in the forest region and deserts, it be- 
ing capable of storing water in the leaf sheaths near the base where 
they join the stem. There seems not to be any need, however, for 
using this usually putrid water, as the tree grows in regions where 
water is usually plentiful. 

The leaves are used in Madagascar for roofs and packing ma- 
terial, while the split leaf stalks and leaf midribs serve for thatch- 
ing; they are braided together and employed as doors, and the huts 
of the natives are often constructed altogether from the braided leaf 
stalks. The plant is propagated from seed as well as from root 
suckers; it loves a moist, hot climate, and is quite ornamental. 

Plate XXVII. 

An avenue of Casuarina equisitifolia Stickm. in Kapiolani Park. 

Casuarinaceae. 61 

Subclass Dicotyledon es. 

Plants belonging to this subclass have a more complex stem- 
structure, the fibrovascular system being arranged in concentric 
layers; these are divided into medularry rays which radiate from a 
central column called the pith. By tar the greatest number of 
plants belong to this subclass. 


Casuarina equisitifolia Stickman. 


Plate XXVI I. 

The Ironwood is a large, rapid-growing, evergreen tree, with 
leafless branches which are drooping, cylindrical, and have sheaths 
of awl-shaped scales at the joints. They are deciduous and take the 
place and perform the functions of leaves. It has the appearance of 
a pine. The branches are jointed like an equisitum stem, hence the 

The genus Casuarina, named on account of the pendant branch- 
lets, resembling the feathers of the Cassowary, was formerly classed 
with the conifers, but is now recognized as the only known genus 
of a distinct family. 

The tree, which is planted as wind-breaks and is especially com- 
mon near the seashore at Waikiki and Kapiolani Park, attains a 
very large size and diameter of trunk ; it loves the sandy tracts near 
the sea and forms on some of the South Pacific Islands the greater 
portion of the strand forests of which the Hawaiian Islands are so 
devoid. The tree is of very wide distribution, ranging from Aus- 
tralia to the Malayan Islands, India and the islands of the Pacific. 
It is now cultivated in many tropical or subtropical countries and 
can be found in Florida, California, and parts of South America. 
Nice avenues of this tree, one of which is here figured, can be found 
in Kapiolani Park at Waikiki, while single trees can often be seen 
on residential premises. 

The bark of the Ironwood is used in tanning, and a brown dye 
is extracted from it. It is slightly astringent and is used as a tonic 
in infusions, as well as being useful in treating chronic dysentery. 

The wood is exceedingly hard ; it cracks and splits, however, and 
is difficult to cut. As firewood it serves well, as it burns readily and 
the ashes retain the heat for a long time. In Fiji the natives use the 

62 Casuarinaceae-Moraceae. 

wood for tapa beaters, while the Australian aborigines make war 
clubs from it. It is of a light brown color, close-grained and prettily 

Besides this species there is one other cultivated in the Territory, 
C. quadrivalvis, an upland species mainly planted along the Pali road 
— a continuation of Nuuanu Avenue. In Australia the latter tree 
is known as He Oak and Beef Wood. 


Mulberry Family. 

The Mulberry family is represented in the Islands by several 
introduced genera of which the genus Ficus is the predominant one. 
Mention may be made of Morus nigra L., the black mulberry, which 
has been in cultivation here for decades. 

The species of Ficus, represented by cultivated ones only, are 
quite numerous in and about Honolulu and elsewhere in the Terri- 
tory. There are also species of Castilloa under cultivation, Castilloa 
elastica Cerv. and another species from Nicaragua. 

Of the genus Artocarpus several varieties of Artocarpus communis 
Forst., the common Breadfruit and Artocarpus integrifolia the Jak- 
fruit are commonly met with. 

The plants of ornamental value which concern us most, however, 
belong to the genus Ficus. 

Ficus elastica Roxb. 
India Rubber Tree. 

The India Rubber Tree, cultivated as a pot plant in many temper- 
ate climates, when planted out in the tropics, reaches a height of forty 
or more feet, is glabrous throughout, and has a spreading crown. It 
begins life as an epiphyte, sending down adventitious roots from the 
trunk and larger branches. The leaves are leathery, smooth and 
shining. The tree is easily recognized by the pink or red stipules 
which enclose the young leaves. It is a native of India but has been 
in cultivation practically throughout the civilized world, even in the 
northern parts of Europe and America, where it is used for room 

In its native home it grows in the damp forests from the base 
of the Himalayas in Sikkim to Assam and Arracan. It is also frequent 
in Upper Burmah where it is said that whole forests of it exist. 

The tree vields the Caoutchouc of Indian commerce. In Hono- 

Moraceae. 63 

lulu scattered specimens may be found, several good specimens oc- 
curring on Kalakaua Avenue near the Moana Hotel and Royal Grove. 

Ficus bengalensis L. 
Banyan Tree. 
Plate XXVIII. 

Ficus bengalensis not to be mistaken for Ficus indica, a much 
smaller tree of thirty feet in height, and growing erect, is a large 
tree attaining a height of seventy to one hundred feet, sending down 
roots from its branches and thus expanding horizontally. Like other 
species of Ficus it begins life as an epiphyte, the fruits being carried 
by birds into the branches of other trees and there the seeds germinate, 
later on dealing death to the host. 

The side branches of the Banyan reach often such thickness that 
they finally become auxiliary trunks and the forest-like expansion con- 
tinues sometimes over an acre, sufficient to afford shade for many 
thousand people. 

Enormous specimens exist in India, its native home. One is 
spoken of as having a circumference of tw T o thousand feet and as 
able to give shade to 20,000 people. 

It is reported as one of the greatest enemies to buildings, especially 
in Bengal ; the seeds contained in bird droppings germinate on the 
walls of houses and temples. 

It grows wild in the sub-Himalayan tracts and the lower slopes 
of the Deccan but has been planted in many tropical countries. In 
Honolulu numerous specimens occur, some of the finest in the late 
Mr. Cleghorn's garden at Waikiki and in Kapiolani Park. Others 
may be seen on Beretania Street near Punahou, and elsewhere. 

The name Banyan was first given this tree at a place called 
Gombroon in India where Hindu traders called Banyans had settled 
and had built a pagoda. 

The French traveler, Tavernier, speaks of it as the Banyan's 
tree ; others state that it was a favorite tree of the Banyans or 
Hindu traders. 

It is a favorite roadside tree and should be planted as such along 
country roads where shade is required. 

The Banyan yields an inferior rubber of no commercial value, 
while the red figs are eaten in India by the poorer classes, especially 
in times of famine. The milky juice is employed medicinally by the 
natives of India and is used externally for bruises and as an anodyne 

o C 

Ll -3 

Moraceae. 65 

application in lumbago and rheumatism, and in Lahore the milky 
juice has been employed to aid in the oxidation of copper. 

The Hindus consider the banyan to be sacred and state that 
Brahma was transformed into a Vada tree, } ada being one of the 
vernacular names of this tree in India. The Hindus regard it a 
sin to destroy a Banyan ; women are ordered to worship it on a cer- 
tain day of the year (May 15th, the J esht shudh), and are told that 
by doing so they attain one of the heavens. 

In Honolulu the tree is badly infested by scale insects which are 
followed by a black fungus (Capnodium lanosum) giving the tree an 
ungainly appearance. 

Ficus religiosa L. 
The Peepul Tree. 

The Peepul is a large glabrous usually epiphytic tree with long 
petioled, ovate, rounded leaves the apex of w T hich tapers into a linear- 
lanceolate prolonged acumen. The fruit is borne sessile, is dark 
purple and has broad leathery basal bracts. 

The Peepul is a native of the sub-Himalayan tracts but is culti- 
vated throughout India as high as 5,000 feet elevation but rare in 
the arid regions of Northwestern India. In Honolulu it is not so 
commonly planted as the Banyan but fine specimens may be seen at 
Moanalua Gardens, and in private grounds and parks about Hono- 
lulu. It is well suited for avenues. It is declared sacred by the 
Hindus and Buddhists, the former viewing it as the female to the 
Banyan. It is worshipped and vows are made to it. The Buddhists 
believe that the incarnation of Buddha took place under this tree, 
and that he received the Buddhaship under the famous sacred Peepul 
at Budhgaya in India not far from Benares. 

Ficus benjamina L. 

Chinese Banyan. 

The so-called Chinese Banyan is of much smaller stature than the 
Bengal or Indian Banyan, reaching a height thirty to forty-five feet, 
it too is epiphytic and assumes tree form. Its branches are long and 
drooping. The leaves are leathery, oblong-ovate, quite smooth, 
pointed at the apex and rounded at the base. The fruits are axillary, 
solitary and sessile, of a dark purple color, fleshy when mature, about 
a half an inch or less in diameter. It occurs wild along the base of 
the eastern Himalayas to Assam, Burmah and the Andaman Islands. 

Moraceae-Proteaceae. 67 

It is cultivated in the Malay peninsula, the Philippines and also 
in Honolulu, where quite a number of specimens can be found. Four 
are at Thomas Square Park, others in residential grounds around the 
city and in other public parks. The wood of this tree is of a gray 
color, beautifully mottled, and is moderately hard. 

Numerous other species of Ficus are under cultivation in Hono- 
lulu the most noteworthy being the ordinary Smyrna fig Ficus carica 
L., Ficus Rumphii Blume, a species greatly resembling the Peepul, 
but with leaves much less caudately acuminate, represented by a 
single specimen cultivated at Mrs. Mary E. Foster's premises; in 
in the same locality is a specimen of Ficus hispida L. a native of the 
Himalayas but of wide distribution ranging over China to Australia. 

Ficus parcelli Hort. a horticultural species with variegated, yellow 
mottled leaves occurs in the former premises of W. M. Giffard, while 
Ficus heterophylla L. a pubescent creeper, becoming a shrub, if un- 
molested, is very common, usually trained over walls of buildings. 
It is a polymorphous species whose leaves are in general small, but 
become of large size on lateral branches, on which are borne the large 
pear-shaped dry figs. It has to be kept down or else will grow into a 
big shrub. A single specimen of Ficus infectoria Roxb. w T ith thin, 
papery leaves on long petioles, with small, pinkish figs, occurs in Dr. 
W. Hillebrand's grounds. 

Other species not yet determined are also under cultivation in 


The family Proteaceae is represented by the cultivated species of 
Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. and G. Banksii R. Br. both of Australia. 
Another valuable tree is Macadamia tcrnifolia known as the Macad- 
amia nut tree. The latter is extensively cultivated by Mr. Jordan 
on his grounds in Nuuanu, while other specimens are scattered about 
Honolulu. An accessible specimen occurs at the Government Nursery 
on King Street. 

Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. 

The Silky Oak. 

The genus Grevillea is quite large, approaching two hundred 
species, nearly all of which are peculiar to Australia, only a few oc- 
curring in New Caledonia. In Honolulu there are about three 
species in cultivation, the Silky Oak and two shrubs, one with bright 
red the other with whitish vellow flowers. 

68 Proteaceae. 

The Silk} - Oak, which is a large tree, in fact the largest in the 
genus, may be seen planted along roadsides, as on Young Street behind 
the quarters of the Board of Agriculture, and along various other 
streets in Honolulu. It often, reaches a height of eighty to one hun- 
dred feet, and is quite robust, whence its specific name. The generic 
name refers to the Right Hon. C. F. Greville, a patron of botany in 
the beginning of the Nineteenth Century. 

The leaves are pinnate, graceful and fern-like, six to eight inches 
long and silky underneath ; the tree bears a profusion of orange- 
yellow flowers on racemes which are solitary or several on short 
leafless branches. The follicle (a fruit of one carpel) is somewhat 
leather}', opens in two valves and encloses a winged seed which is 
extremely light, and as the trees are usually quite lofty it is diffi- 
cult to collect the seeds, which are blown about by the wind as 
soon as the follicles open. 

The timber of the Silky Oak is light in color but has handsome 
oak-like markings. It has been employed for wine casks, but seems 
to be too porous to hold spirits. It was formerly used in Australia 
for milk buckets and other dairy utensils, and has now come into 
use again for butter boxes. 

The trunk gives off an exudation of both gum and resin which 
is of a peculiar yellow color and has a very disagreeable odor. 

The Silky Oak is a native of Queensland, where it occurs in the 
brush forest, but not many miles from the coast. It is quite droueht- 
resistant, and has on that account been cultivated and planted ex- 
tensively in many tropical countries. Its tenacious vitality, quick 
growth, hardiness and value of timber make it a desirable tree. In 
this Territory it flourishes from sea-level to four thousand feet ele- 
vation on Haleakala, Maui, and is not at all particular in regard to 
climate. Owing to its being deciduous or rather semi-deciduous it 
is not well suited for street planting, and as its appearance is not 
altogether graceful it should not be used for avenues, but should be 
planted where wind-break is required or for other utilitarian rather 
than ornamental purposes. 

Grevillea Banksii R. Br., which is a tall shrub or slender tree 
fifteen to twenty feet in height, has red flowers, is much smaller 
than the Grevrllea robusta, and indeed worth}- of cultivation. It is 
indigenous to Queensland. 

Polygonaceae-Nyctaginaceae. 69 


The family Polygonaceae is represented by two genera and in 
turn each genus by one species. Coccoloba uvifera Jacq., the Sea 
grape or Pigeon wood, is a tree of medium or large size and grows 
near the sea in the West Indies. In Jamaica the wood is esteemed for 
cabinet work. It is propagated by cuttings. A specimen may be seen 
in Mr. Jordan's grounds on Wyllie Street, Nuuanu. 

Muehlenbeckia platyclada Meissn. is a shrub, often climbing, 
with phyllodic branches resembling the broad, flat Hawaiian 
Mistletoe, and fleshy leaves which it throws off soon after their ap- 
pearance. It is a native of the Solomon Islands, and is sparingly 
cultivated in Honolulu. To this family belongs also the Mexican 
Creeper Antigonon leptopus H. et A. a native of West Mexico and 
commonly cultivated in Honolulu, where only the red variety is seen. 


No introduced arborescent species of this family are to be found 
in Honolulu or elsewhere in the Territory but there are several 
climbers of great beauty which cannot well be omitted. The genus 
Bougainvillea named after De Bougainville, a French navigator, com- 
prises the well known climbers. 

Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. is the most commonly cultivated 
species, the floral bracts being either purple, red or brick red, the 
latter is horticulturally known as var. lateritia Hort. ; the small 
flowered everblooming variety is botanically known as B. spectabilis 
Willd. var. parviflora Mart. 

Bougainvillea glabra Choisy a perfectly glabrous species with 
rose-red bracts is also in cultivation. It differs from B. spectabilis 
Willd. in the branches and leaves, which are perfectly glabrous, in 
the lanceolate leaves and elliptical-lanceolate bracts. 

Of the Family Amaranthaceae the following may be mentioned 
but does not come within the scope of this work: Alternanthera 
versicolor Regel, a small border plant with variegated leaves, a native 
probably of Brazil. 

70 Magnoliaceae-Anonaceae. 


Magnolia Family. 

The Magnolia Family is represented by the two introduced 
genera, Michelia and Magnolia. Of the former, two species are in 
cultivation, M. chain paca L. and M. fuscata Blume, of the later 
Magnolia grandiflora L. only. Michelia champaca L. is a small tree 
with pubescent branches and ovate-lanceolate leaves ; the flowers are 
yellowish, waxy, and exceedingly fragrant. It is a native of India 
and is known in Honolulu as Mulang. Specimens may be seen in 
Mrs. M. E. Foster's premises. The second species, M. fuscata Blume, 
is a shrub with the young shoots brown-pubescent ; the flowers are 
small, erect, and brownish, and also very fragrant. It is a native of 
China, and specimens may be seen on the above-mentioned premises. 

The Magnolia does not grow so luxuriantly as in the southern 
United States, but remains stunted, barely reaching a height of fifteen 
or twenty feet. It grows better in the uplands, as on Maui on the 
slopes of Haleakala, where it is in cultivation. 


The Anona family is distributed exclusively in the tropics, es- 
pecially within those of Asia, Africa and America. In Honolulu a 
number of genera are under cultivation. The genus Anona is well 
represented by the edible species Anona muricata L. the Sour;op, A. 
squamosa L. the Sugar Apple, A. Cherhnolia Mill., the Cherimolia. 
and A. reticulata L., known as Bullock's Heart or Custard Apple. 
All four species are of South American origin, but are cultivated for 
their fruits practically throughout the tropics. Of the genus Poly- 
althia there is one species in Honolulu grown in Queen's Hospital 
grounds. It is a small tree or shrub with small dark purple globose 
fruits, erroneously recorded by G. P. Wilder as Bumelia Sp. in his 
book on the "Fruits of the Hawaiian Islands," plate 117. 

Canangium odoratum (Lam.) Baill. 

( Syn. Cananga odorata Hk. f. et Th.) 

Ilang ilaxg. 

The Ilang ilang is a medium-sized to rather large tree with droop- 
ing branches; the leaves are oblong-ovate with a pointed apex and 
usually rounded base and are five to eight inches long. The flowers, 
which are greenish and very fragrant, are pendulous and turn yellow 

Anonaceae-Myristicaceae. 71 

when mature, the flowerstalks are elongated when in fruit, the petals 
are lanceolate, one and one-half inches long and one-third inch wide. 
The fleshy fruit is oblong-cylindrical, green or the color of a ripe 
olive, and little less than an inch long. 

The Hang Hang is a native of Burmah, Java, Tenasserim and the 
Philippines, but has been in cultivation in many parts of India and 
other tropical countries on account of its sweet-smelling flowers. In 
Honolulu the tree is not uncommon, and may be found in a great 
many private grounds as well as in the Government Nursery and a 
few public parks. 

An oil prepared from the flowers is known as Otto of Hang and 
is highly esteemed. The flowers are distilled in large quantities 
for the valuable perfume oil which is frequently blended with pimento, 
rose, tuberose and jasmine in the preparation of handkerchief per- 

The wood of the Hang Hang is soft and white, and not very dur- 
able. The Samoans make small canoes of it, while the Malayans 
hollow out the trunks into drums or tomtoms. The flowers are often 
strung into wreaths and garlands by the South Sea Islanders. The 
tree may be readily propagated from cuttings or seeds ; it thrives well 
in moist warm climates, and flowers and fruits all the year round. 

The oil of the Hang Hang, valuable as a perfume oil, is exported 
from the Philippines in steadily increasing quantities, amounting in 
value to over one hundred thousand dollars annually. 

Artabotrys uncinatus (L.) Merrill, also known as Hang-Hang, 
is a scandent woody shrub, glabrous throughout. The flowers are 
fragrant, solitary or in pairs. The ripe fruit is about 2 inches long, 
obovoid and yellow 7 . It is a native of India and Ceylon, but is now 
cultivated in many tropical countries. In Honolulu it is trained into 
arbors and made to climb over trees and verandas. Specimens may 
be seen in Dr. Cooper's premises opposite the Normal School and 
also on Wilder Avenue. The odor of the strongly scented flowers 
reminds one very much of that of Canangium odoratum. 


Of the Myristicaceac or Nutmeg Family, the Nutmeg, Myristica 
fragrans Houtt. is the only member cultivated in Honolulu. In 
fact there is only one single male tree to be found ; it grows in Mrs. 
M. E. Foster's premises and was introduced by Dr. W. Hillebrand. 

12 Lauraceae. 


Laurel Family. 

The Laurel Family is distributed over the warmer parts of both 
hemispheres, but is chiefly tropical. In Honolulu there are under 
cultivation two genera, Cinnamomum and Persea; the first, more 
definitely described below, is represented by two species, the Cinna- 
mon and Camphor tree, the latter by one species, Persea americana 
Mill., the well-known Alligator Pear or Avocado, a native of tropical 
America. It has been planted in most tropical and subtropical coun- 
tries on account of its highly prized fruit. 

Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) Bl. 
True Cinnamon. 

The True Cinnamon is a tree of medium height and is glabrous, 
with the exception of the finely silky-pubescent buds. The leaves are 
leathery and shining, oval in outline and are strongly three- to five- 
nerved. The flowers, which are pale yellow, are borne numerously 
on panicles of the length of the leaves, clustered in the upper axils. 
The fruit is less than half an inch long, oblong ovoid, slightly fleshy 
and is surrounded by the enlarged perianth. The True Cinnamon is 
a native of the forests of Ceylon, but is now cultivated on that island 
as well as in Southern India. 

Various products are derived from the Cinnamon tree, which are 
commercially exploited. For instance, the root of the tree yields 
camphor, while of the fibre or inner bark an essential oil is procured 
which is of considerable importance. Cinnamon is exported from 
Ceylon in the form of sticks about 40 inches long, formed of tubular 
pieces of bark about a foot long, and one placed within the other 
dexteriously. The bark composing the stick is extremely thin and 
has a light brown dull surface with a fragrant odor quite peculiar 
to this species and allied harks of the same genus. 

Medicinally, cinnamon, which is aromatic and stimulant, is used 
in spasmodic affections of the bowels and gastric irritation. 

A volatile oil is distilled from the leaves known as "clove oil," 
similar to the genuine oil of cloves, and used in toothache. 

The only mature specimens known to the writer are on the prem- 
ises of the late Dr. Win. Hillebrand, who is responsible for its intro- 
duction. The trees, which are of considerable height, bear seed 
profusely, young seedlings coming up under the trees at all times. 

Lauraceae-Hernandiaceae. 73 

Another species of this genus Cinnamomum camphora Nees, the 
Camphor Tree, reaches quite large dimensions ; it has smooth shining 
leaves, which when crushed emit a strong odor of camphor. It is a 
native of China, Japan and the Malay Islands and is of early intro- 
duction. Quite a number of trees can be found scattered throughout 
the Territory. Large specimens may be seen in the Royal Mausoleum 
grounds on Nuuanu Avenue near the entrance; others occur on Maui, 
Hawaii and probably elsewhere in the Territory, where it has been 
under cultivation for many years. 


This family is represented by the following species only : 
Hernandia peltata Meissn. 

Hernandia peltata is a large spreading tree with thick, bright 
green, broadly ovate pointed leaves, which are peltately attached near 
the base, the larger ones being nearly a foot long. The flowering 
panicles are shorter than the leaves, and the flowers are almost clus- 
tered on the branches ; the female flowers are terminal, with one or 
two male flowers lower down. The fruit is completely enclosed with 
the involucel which becomes inflated globular and fleshy, with a 
circular entire orifice at the top; the fruit is about an inch in dia- 
meter and marked with eight broad, raised, longitudinal ribs. The 
seeds are very hard, and are about three-fourths of an inch in dia- 

This evergreen tree is a native of Southeast Asia, the South 
Pacific, Mascarene and Philippine Islands, Guam and Loo Choo Isl- 
and, besides occurring also in Queensland, Australia, in all of which 
countries it grows in the coast forest. The wood is very light, and 
takes fire readily from a flint and steel. 

The juice is a powerful depilatory and removes hair without pain. 
The bark and leaves act as a cathartic. Very few trees are in culti- 
vation in Honolulu. The largest specimen grows in the grounds of 
the Board of Agriculture on King Street. The author collected it 
on the shores of Guam, and young specimens have now been planted 
on the College grounds. 

Plate XXX. 

Moringa oleifera Lam. 

Horse-radish Tree. 
Flowering specimen and fruit. 

Hernandiaceae-Moringaceae. 75 

Hernandia bivalvis Beuth. 

Hernandia bivalvis is a small tree with ovate-lanceolate, pointed 
leaves which are not peltate at the base. The inflorescence is as in 
H. peltata. The involucel, which is very large and encloses the fruit, 
is not simple but bi-valved, consisting of two inflated, almost mem- 
braneous, valves which are cordate at the base. The fruit is about 
ten-ribbed and the seed is as in the other species. It is a native of 
Queensland, Australia. Only one single tree occurs in Honolulu ; it 
can be found on the grounds of the Government Nursery, near the 
Young Street side. 


Moringa oleifera Lam. 

Horse-radish Tree. 

Plate XXX. 

The Horse-radish Tree is of medium height, never more than 
twenty-five feet, has a corky bark, and roots with a pungent taste. 
The leaves are pinnate, pale beneath, and thin. The white flowers are 
borne in spreading panicles. The pod is pendulous, three-angled, and 
ribbed ; the seeds are also triquetrous and winged on the angles. The 
tree, though widely distributed in the tropics, is a native of Asia, 
occurring in the Himalayan tracts but is commonly cultivated in In- 
dia, Burmah, and in some parts of Africa, especially in Togo, where 
it is planted from cuttings as a hedge. The seeds yield a rather clear, 
colorless oil, which is easily extracted by means of pressure. It is 
composed of olein, margarine and stearine, and is considered one of 
the best lubricants for fine machinery and is especially valued by 
watch-makers, but is also used for the manufacture of perfumed hair- 
oil, owing to its great power of absorbing and retaining the most 
fugitive ordors. 

In India, flowers, leaves, and pods are cooked in various ways as 
a pot-herb, while the root is used as a condiment. The roots of 
young trees when scraped resemble horse-radish, and taste so much 
like it that the nicest palate could not distinguish the two. There 
are probably not more than three mature specimens of this tree in the 
Territory. The writer understands that a number of young plants 
have been raised from seed at Kahana by Mr. Leckenby. The one 
which is in Dr. W. Hillebrand's garden is probably the first speci- 
men introduced. 

76 Leguminosae. 


Legume or Bean Family. 

The vast Legume or Bean Family is represented in the Hawaiian 
Islands by man)' introduced as well as native species ; the introduced 
species are much more numerous than the indigenous or native ones 
which have been treated in the writer's book, "The Indigenous Trees 
of the Hawaiian Islands." In the present volume only such of the 
introduced species are discussed or figured as are of arborescent char- 
acter and of more or less ornamental value. 

The family Leguminosae is divided into three very natural sub- 
families as follows: Mimosoideae with regular flowers, valvate petals, 
and definite or indefinite stamens; Caesalpinioideae with irregular 
flowers, petals imbricate, the upper petal innermost, sometimes re- 
duced to one or three and definite stamens; Papilionatae with very 
irregular petals, the flower butterfly-like, the upper petal outermost ; 
the stamens definite, their filaments variously united. All three di- 
visions have the characteristic pod or legume which may be dry or 
fleshy, dehiscent or indehiscent, and is variably one to many-seeded. 
Among the numerous species found in and about Honolulu the fol- 
lowing less conspicuous members are only mentioned here, as space 
forbids going into detail. 

In the Mimosoideae group belong the common Klu or Aroma, 
Acacia Farnesiana ( L. ) Willd., a much branched spiny shrub or 
small tree with fragrant globose, yellow flower heads. It grows in 
common with the Algaroba and frequents the arid regions. It is a 
native of tropical America. Mention may also be made of the two 
Australian wattles Acacia decurrens and Acacia dealbata both planted 
on Tantalus, as well as Acacia catechu. Albizzia lebbekoides is rare 
in Honolulu, the writer knowing only of one tree, in Mrs. Foster's 
grounds on Nuuanu Avenue ; it has finely pinnate leaves and nar- 
row thin papery pods. Albizzia stipulata, recognizable by its large 
conspicuous stipules, may be found in the Government Nursery 
grounds on King Street. Parkinsonia aculeata, an undesirable very 
spiny shrub, is of later introduction and was first planted by the 
army along the waterfront. Leucaena glauca, the Koa haole of the 
natives, is an introduced shrub more often a weed with rather large 
globose, white flower heads, found on the lower mountain slopes and 
waste places. Of the Caesalpinioideae may be found Intsia biiuga 
(Colebr. ) O. Kuntze, a native of tropical Madagascar and Poly- 
nesia; only one tree is known to the writer, growing in Hilo at St. 
Mary's School. To the Papilionatae belong the following species: 

Cassia nodosa Ham. 
Pink and White Shower 

After a painting by W. R. R. Potter 

Leguminosae. 77 

Dalbergia sissou Roxb., a handsome tree of which a single specimen 
occurs in Honolulu on King Street in the Government Nursery. 
Clitorea ternatea Lam. a scandent vine with blue flowers is not un- 
common. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. ) Steud. was first introduced by 
Air. and Airs. F. M. Swanzy from the Philippines and may still be 
seen growing on their premises facing Alanoa Valley Road. In the 
Philippines it is a very handsome shrub or small tree, but it has 
not become acclimated in Hawaii. Alention may be made of two 
handsome trees ; the one with yellow flowers and flat papery pod with 
one seed is Platymiscium ft 'o rib nudum, a native of South America, 
the other with purplish red flowers arranged in dense axillary 
racemes, belongs to the genus Lonchocnrpus and is probably a native 
of Africa. Both these species, of each of which there is only a single 
tree, have been introduced by Dr. William Hillebrand and can be 
found in his old premises now belonging to Airs. Alary E. Foster, 
on Nuuanu Avenue. 

A number of Leguminous trees have been imported by the writer 
lately and especial mention may be made of the king of flowering 
trees, Amherstia nobilis, which he brought from Java, as well as 
species of Brownea (grandiceps and hybrida) Saraca declinata, sev- 
eral species of Bnuhinin, Schizolobium excelsum, Parkin Timoriana 
and Pahudia rhomboidea the latter two from the Philippines. Seeds 
of numerous leguminous trees were also imported which have germi- 
nated and may be expected to become established. 

Key to the Subfamilies 

Flowers regular, petals valvate ; stamens definite or indefinite, 
I. Mimosoideae. 

Flowers irregular, upper petal innermost, petals imbricate, some- 
times reduced to one or three; stamens definite II. Caesalpinioideae. 

Petals very irregular, butterfly-like, upper petal outermost, sta- 
mens definite, their filaments variously united III. Papilionatae. 

Enterolobium cyclocarpum Grieseb. 
Elephant's Ear. 

Plate XXXI. 

Enterolobium cyclocarpum Grieseb. is a lofty spreading tree, 
glabrous throughout. The leaves are pinnate and each pinna consists 
of twenty to thirty pairs of leaflets which are unequal-sided, oblong, 
pointed and glaucous beneath. The leafstalk bears glands between 

Plate XXXI. 

Enterolobium cyclocarpum Grieseb. 
Flowering and fruiting specimen. 

Leguminosae. 79 

the lowest and uppermost pinnae. The calyx is puberulous and 
more than half as long as the corolla. The numerous white stamens 
are united at the base. The pod is repand, forming a complete cir- 
cle, the rounded top touching the rounded base, it is one and a half 
to nearly two inches broad with the basilar sinus closed. The whole 
fruit is consequently three to four inches in diameter. It is dark- 
brown and has a polished appearance. 

This very quickly growing tree is quite common in Honolulu, 
where large specimens can be seen on King Street in Thomas 
Square, in the Government Nursery grounds and elsewhere. It de- 
serves to be planted more commonly than heretofore owing to its 
quick growth and its value as a shade tree. 

It is a native of Jamaica and Venezuela whence it was intro- 
duced into many tropical countries. 

The bark of this tree contains tannin and the wood is used for 
building or construction purposes. 

Pithecolobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. 

Opiuma (Hawaiian name). Manila Tamarind. 

Plate XXXII. 

The Opiuma, as the Hawaiians call the tree, is of medium height 
with a rather short trunk. The ultimate branches of the tree are 
pendulous and are armed with short, sharp spines ; the leaves are 
two-pinnate — that is, each pinna consists of a single pair of leaflets ; 
the flowers are white in dense globose heads and arranged along the 
slender branchlets; the dehiscent pod is twisted, often spiral, the 
valves turning red when ripe; it contains six to eight seeds which 
are surrounded by a whitish, sweet, edible pulp. The pods which 
ripen from April to June are good fodder for animals. 

This tree yields a transparent gum of a polished appearance and 
a deep reddish brown color. This gum is soluble in water and 
forms a brownish mucilage. The seeds yield a fatty oil as thick 
as that of the castor bean, but its properties have not been determined. 
The sap wood is small, the heart wood is reddish brown and smells 
very unpleasant when freshly cut and is of little value ; it is used 
for crates and packing boxes, and is also grown for fuel. It makes 
a good avenue tree, and is also suitable as a hedge plant. The bark 
contains about 25% of tannin and is one of the principal sources of 
that material in Mexico. 

Plate XXXII. 

Pithecolobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. 
Opiuma, flowering and fruiting branch. 

Leguminosae. 81 

The Opiuma is a native of Central America and Mexico, whence 
it was introduced into the Islands many years ago. 

The name Pithecolobium is derived from the Greek "monkey" 
and "pod" but has nothing to do with the tree known by the name 
Monkey-pod in Honolulu. The tree is now cultivated in other tropi- 
cal countries, especially in India. 

Samanea saman (Benth.) Merrill 

Plate XXXIII. 

Monkey-pod or Rain-Tree. 

The Monkey-pod is a large tree reaching a height sixty to seventy- 
five feet, with wide-spreading branches. The leaves are evenly two- 
pinnate, pinnae eight to twelve, with twelve to sixteen leaflets in 
the upper, and six to ten in the lower, pinnae decreasing in size 
downward and are from three-fourths to one and three-fourths of 
an inch long. The flowers are pink and arranged in dense, peduncled, 
axillary heads. The pod is straight, somewhat fleshy and indehiscent. 
The mesocarp is pulpy and sweet. This species was formerly known 
as Pithecolobium saman but it has not the dehiscent twisted pod 
ascribed to this genus. Mr. E. D. Merrill, Government Botanist of 
the Bureau of Science in Manila, P. I., has thought best to establish 
a new genus for it adopting the section name Samanea under which 
it was listed in the former genus. The Monkey-pod yields a yellow 
gum of poor quality. The gum occurs in irregular drops and vermic- 
ular pieces, is soft and tough, and swells in water into a tough carti- 
laginous mass, which turns from a deep reddish brown color to black. 
The sapwood is white, while the heartwood is brown, rather soft and 
perishable; it weighs about twenty-six pounds per cubic foot. It is 
a native of the West Indies and Central America, but is now 
cultivated in most tropical countries. It is grown from seed. The 
Monkey-pod or Rain-Tree is a rapid grower, especially under irri- 
gation. Its name Rain-Tree is probably derived from the falling 
liquid excreta of cicadeae insects which inhabit the trees in Central 
America. The name Monkey-pod is simply a translation of the old 
generic name Pithecolobium. 

It is one of the finest shade trees and is on that account well 
adapted for street-planting, where shade is required. It is most ex- 
tensively planted in the Islands ; fine specimens may be seen on Puna- 
hou Street, at Moanalua Gardens, and elsewhere ; some with a spread 
of over a hundred feet. 

Leguminosae. 83 

It is one of those trees in which the leaflets are possessed of the 
power of movement and close together at sundown, thus shedding 
the dew. When the sun is high the leaflets spread out and screen off 
the powerful rays of the sun. It is a valuable tree for crop protection 
as it prevents excessive evaporation from the soil. 

Albizzia Lebbek (L.) Benth. 

The Siris Tree. 

Plate XXXIV. 

The Siris Tree is large, deciduous, and spreading. It is culti- 
vated here and there in parks and along streets about Honolulu. The 
Siris Tree is a native of tropical Africa and Asia ; it grows in the 
evergreen mixed forests in the lower Himalayas from the Indus to 
Bengal, Burmah, as well as in Central and South India, and often 
ascends to an elevation of five thousand feet. As the tree is decidu- 
ous and remains for a long time bare, save for the broad yellow papery 
pods which hang in great numbers and do not improve the appear- 
ance of the tree, it cannot be called ornamental ; besides, its flowers 
are more or less inconspicuous, being of a greenish yellow color but 
are exceedingly fragrant. Even in the spring when the leaves appear, 
the pods, which are over half a foot long and an inch and a half 
wide, and straw colored, still remain. 

It has been employed in India as an avenue tree, as its roots do 
not penetrate very deeply into the ground. It is grown from seeds 
but may also be easily propagated from cuttings. There are. however, 
much more desirable trees for avenue plantings which shed their 
leaves either not at all or at most for a very short period and be- 
sides have beautiful large showy flowers. 

The Siris Tree yields a gum which is not soluble in water but 
is jelly-like and resembles gum arable, and is often used as an adult- 
erant for pure gum. The bark is used for tanning, while an oil ex- 
tracted from the seeds is considered useful in leprosy. The seeds 
and leaves are employed medicinally in ophthalmia, and the flowers 
are used by the natives of India as a cooling medicine, being applied 
externally on boils and eruptions. Powdered seeds have been ad- 
ministered successfully in scrofulous enlargements of the glands, and 
powdered root-bark is used when the gums are ulcerated and spongy. 
The Siris Tree is a rapid grower and is content with almost any 
kind of soil. It flourishes best, however, on embankments and road- 
sides. Large trees can be found in Honolulu, one at Pawaa Junction 

Plate XXXIV. 

Albizzia Lebbek (L.) Benth. 
A large Siris Tree in Moanalua Gardens. 

Leguminosae. 85 

on King Street and others at Moanalua, while smaller ones are scat- 
tered all over town. 

It has a large sapwood which is white, while the heartwood is 
dark brown, hard and somewhat mottled. It seasons well, is worked 
easily and takes a good polish. It is extensively used for various 
purposes, even for buildings, furniture, etc. In Northern India it is 
considered unlucky to use the wood in house-building. 

Albizzia saponaria (Lour.) Bl. 
Plate XXXV. 

Albizzia saponaria is a small tree attaining a height of thirty to 
forty feet. The leaves are twelve to sixteen inches long, and consist 
of four pinnae, the upper of which are longer than the lower and 
are composed of four to eight ovate leaflets, gradually becoming 
larger tow T ards the end of the pinnae. The flowering panicles are 
terminal, pubescent and spreading. The flowers are white, crowded 
in heads at the ends of the branchlets. The pod is thin, flat, up to 
seven inches in length and little over an inch wide containing seven 
to twelve seeds. 

It is a native of the Philippines, distributed over Malay and grows 
in the open forests. In Honolulu only a few specimens occur. The 
most accessible is in the Queen's Hospital grounds. The sapw T ood 
is of a creamy white, the heartwood dark brown to almost black. 
It is moderately hard and heavy and is used for general house con- 
struction in the Philippine Islands, also for furniture and fine in- 
terior finish in the southern islands. 

Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. 

The Blackwood. 

The Blacktcood, which has been in cultivation in our Territory, 
belongs more to the higher levels rather than to Honolulu, though a 
few trees can be found on residential grounds on Nuuanu Avenue; 
it is planted mainly on Tantalus and on other higher situated locali- 
ties throughout the Territory and does not really come within the 
scope of this work. It resembles the Hawaiian Koa (Acacia Koa) 
greatly, though it does not reach such handsome proportions. The 
phyllods, or false leaves, which are really dilated leaf stalks, are not 
as graceful as those of the Koa; they are not curved but more or 
less straight and give the tree a rather stiff appearance. Mention 
may also be made here of the various wattles, as Acacia decurrens 

Plate XXXV. 

Albizzia saponaria (Lour.) Bl. 
Flowering and fruiting specimen. 

Leguminosae. 87 

and A. dealbata with which the Blackwood is usually planted on the 
drier slopes of our mountains. It is called the Blackwood on account 
of the dark color of the heartwood. The specific name melanoxylon 
is from the Greek and means Black-wood. 

It is a native of Tasmania and Australia, and is considered one 
of the most valuable timber trees of that country. 

Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. 

Kiawe, Algarroba, Algaroba. 

Plate XXXVI. 

The Algaroba is by far the most common as well as the most 
valuable of all the introduced trees in the Hawaiian Islands. No 
tree so far introduced has proved of such enormous benefit to these 
Islands as the Algaroba. Nevertheless the exact identity of this valu- 
able tree has as yet not been definitely determined. It seems to be 
a very variable species, not only in these Islands, where specimens 
occur bristling with spines and then again others without a thorn, 
but also in its native home, which by the way, seems to include the 
West Indies, the southern United States, Central America, and even 
portions of South America, as for example, Brazil and Peru. In the 
"Flora Brasiliensis" of Martius, a monumental work, Prosopis dulcis 
is looked upon as a synonym of Prosopis juliflora', and is recorded 
from Brazil as a large tree. 

It has been stated to be also identical with a species occurring in 
Texas and New Mexico, which has, however, been recorded lately 
by E. O. Wooton and P. C. Stanley in their "Flora of New Mexico" 
(1915, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. V. 19), as Prosopis glandulosa 
Torr. (the Mesquite). Its range is given as Arizona and New 
Mexico to Oklahoma and Texas. The legume is described as inde- 
hiscent, slightly compressed, straight or falcate. The height of the 
plant is given as 3 meters (about 12 feet). 

In order to avoid confusion, the writer adhers to the name 
Prosopis juliflora for the tree found in Hawaii, which in all prob- 
ability is identical with the plant known by that name elsewhere, as 
for example, in Brazil. All the waste lands in these Islands, which 
previous to the introduction of this valuable tree were absolutely 
barren, are now covered with green forests made up exclusively 
of this tree. It grows exceptionally well on the lee sides, and for 
miles there exist now almost impenetrable jungles, which not only 
supply excellent firewood, but furnish flowers with the best of nectar 

Plate XXXVI. 



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Algaroba Trees, Prosopsis jul iflora (Sw.) DC. on the Punahou Campusi 

Leguminosae. 89 

for honey-making. The pods, in addition, are eaten by all kinds of 
grazing animals, and so great has been the demand for pods as fodder 
that there was formed in Hawaii the Algaroba Feed Co., and 
machinery was invented to macerate the pod. It can safely be said 
that the Algaroba is now indispensable in Hawaii, and that it is one 
of the greatest blessings that were bestowed on this Territory. The 
history of the introduction of this valuable tree was published by 
Father Reginald Yzendoorn of the Catholic Mission, in 1911, and 
for a detailed account the writer wishes to refer anyone interested, 
to Father Reginald's paper in the Eighteenth Annual Report of the 
Hawaiian Historical Society. The progenitor of all the Hawaiian 
Algarobas is still alive and can be seen on the premises of the Catho- 
lic Mission on Fort Street. The inscription reads: "First Algaroba 
Tree of the Hawaiian Islands, imported and planted in 1837 by 
Father Bachelot, founder of the Catholic Mission. Later evidences 
unearthed by Father Reginald, however, seem to prove that the tree 
was not planted in 1837, but earlier. For the following quotations 
and remarks the writer is greatly indebted to Father Reginald, who, 
in a letter, says (he refers first to his article and then continues): 
"I may add to this article two quotations from the journal of 
Brother Melchior, who remained here during the exile of the priests 
in California. I had not seen that diary when I wrote the above- 
mentioned paper. 

" 'January 12, 1832. — The old chief ess passed by our house to 
go and see the governess ; she sent her husband to ask me for some 
branches of our tree at the end of the yard'. 

" 'August 15, 1832. — The tree at the end of the yard bears fruit. 
Mr. Pablo (a Spaniard then living at the Mission) calls it in 
Spanish "Algarroba." He knows it; the fruit is principally eaten in 
times of famine. They grow in the provinces of Malaga and Valence, 
but this one is of a more delicate and less sweet species'."* 

Father Reginald concludes : "These quotations show that the 
legend of the picture ( an illustration published with Father Regi- 
nald's article. — The author.), saying that the tree was planted in 
1828 is true, as four years later it bore pods, evidently for the first 
time. Notice also the interest the natives were taking in the tree, 
and how they tried to propagate it by planting cuttings, naturally, as 
they had no seeds as yet." 

* The writer would say that Mr. Pablo evidently had the St. John's Bread, Cera- 
tonia siliqua, in mind, and when he says "more delicate" he evidently referred to the 
less robust habit and much finer leaves. The pods of St. John's Bread are very sweet 
and quite palatable. 

Plate XXXVII. 

Saraca indica Linn. 
Sorrowiess Tree of India. Flowering branches. 

Leguminosae. 91 

In the illustration published and herein referred to by Father 
Reginald, it is stated that the tree was introduced by Father Bache- 
lot in 1828, the seed having come from the Royal Gardens of Paris, 
France. Ceratonia siliqua, the St. John's Bread, is cultivated o:i 

Adenanthera pavonina L. 
Red Wood, Red Sandalwood, False Wiliwili. 

This so-called Wilhvili is a small tree reaching a height of from 
fifteen to twenty-five feet and is bare for a short time during the 
3'ear. Its leaves are bi-pinnate with six to ten pairs of leaflets to each 
pinna, the former are ovate or oblong-elliptical, and glabrous ; the 
flowers are borne in short racemes and are yellowish in color. The 
legume or pod is from four to twelve inches long, brown outside, 
golden yellow inside, linear, compressed and incurved ; the seeds 
are scarlet, round and compressed. 

The leaves as well as the seeds are employed medicinally. Of the 
former a decoction is used as a remedy for chronic rheumatism and 
gout. The latter are more often used as an article of food and as 
weights, each seed weighing about four grains. 

It is a very common tree in and about Honolulu but cannot be 
considered as ornamental save for the red seeds which are sold in 
Honolulu curio stores as wiliwili necklaces. 

The wood is hard, close grained, the heartwood red, durable and 
strong. In India a dye is prepared from the wood of this tree but 
its chief use is as a substitute for the real red sandalwood. The tim- 
ber is used for housebuilding and cabinet making in India where the 
tree grows to a considerable size. 

It is often confounded with the true red Sandalwood (Ptero- 
carpus Santalinus) which yields the red sandalwood of commerce. 
Both species, however, have really nothing in common with the fra- 
grant Sandalwood. 

It is a native of India and Burmah, but has been in cultivation in 
many tropical countries. 

Saraca indica L. 


Plate XXXVII. 

This rather small tree is a native of Central and Eastern Hima- 
laya, Bengal, South India and occurs in Kumaon in which latter place 


Trachylobium verrucosum Lam. 
Copal Tree. Fruiting specimen. 

Leguminosae. 93 

it grows to an elevation of two thousand feet. It is now distributed 
all over India and is cultivated in many tropical countries but is 
indigenous in Eastern Bengal. It is an exceedingly handsome object 
when in full blossom and reminds one somewhat of the Ixora. The 
flowers are of a coral-red and arranged in large globose heads in 
the axils as well as at the ends of the branches; the leaves have 
almost no leaf-stalk, are leathery, oblong in outline and entire. 

The bark of this tree is much used by the natives of India for 
medicinal purposes, as it contains a large proportion of gallic acid. 
The Asoka is one of the most sacred trees of the Hindus, who are 
ordered to worship it on a certain day in the year. The flowers, 
which are quite aromatic, are much used in temple decoration. The 
tree stands for the symbol of love and is dedicated to the Indian 
God of Love. The Asoka is also held sacred by the Burmese, who 
believe that Buddha was born under its shade. The word Asoka 
signifies "that which is deprived of grief," hence the name Sorrow- 
less Tree. 

The wood of the Asoka is rather soft and of a light reddish 
brown color, the heartwood is, however, hard and dark colored. 

There seem to be only two or three trees of this species growing 
in Honolulu ; it is in flower nearly all the year round and can be 
seen in the grounds of the Government Nursery facing King Street, 
and in private grounds on Nuuanu Street. 

Trachylobium verracosum Lam. 

Copal Tree. 


The Copal is a small unarmed tree with terete branches. The 
leaves are short-petioled, consisting of a single pair of oblique, oblong, 
rigid-leathery leaves, two to three inches long. The flowers are 
borne in ample corymbose panicles, the lower branches of which 
spring often from the axils of the leaves. The calyx is short, the 
segments oblong and tomentose. The petals are white, the three 
upper often exserted from the calyx. The pod is oblong, thick, warty 
and two inches long. This species, which is represented in Honolulu 
by very few specimens, perhaps by a single one only, is a native of 
Madagascar, tropical Africa, Mauritius, and the Seychelle Islands. 

It is often cultivated, but only for its gum-copal, a hard trans- 
parent substance resembling amber, a natural exudation of this tree. 
The gum is yielded by the living trees, but the commercial sub- 

Plate XXXIX. 

Tamarindus indica L. 

Flowering and fruiting specimen. 

Leguminosae. 95 

stance is derived mainly from fossil copal, which occurs in large 
quantities buried in the sand, chiefly near the coasts, away from any 
Living trees. 

A good specimen occurs in the grounds of the Board of Agri- 
culture and Forestry on King Street. 

Tamarindus indica L. 
The Tamarind Tree. 
Plate XXXIX. 

The Tamarind is a large evergreen tree which often reaches a 
height of eighty feet and a circumference of twenty-five feet. No 
trees of such size occur in Honolulu. Its origin is somewhat doubt- 
ful, but it is probably a native of tropical Africa. It is a very com- 
mon tree about Honolulu where it has been in cultivation for a long 
time. In India the tree is extremely common and is frequently planted 
in avenues. Its beautiful foliage makes it quite an attractive tree. 
Its pods contain seeds which are surrounded by an acid pulp of 
pleasant flavor, making a delicious cooling drink when mixed with 
water. The leaves have twenty to forty oblong leaflets. The flowers 
are borne in lax terminal racemes, the petals are five in number, only 
three of which are developed, and are yellow with red stripes, while 
the two lower ones are reduced to scales. 

The leaves, flowers, and fruits contain a quantity of acid 
and are employed as a dye in conjunction with other dye-producing 
flowers. From the seed is expressed an oil of beautiful amber color 
which is odorless and sweet to taste, and has been advocated for culi- 
nary purposes as well as for the preparation of varnishes and paints. 

Knowledge of the value of the Tamarind as a medicinal plant 
dates back into a remote period in Sanskrit medicine and has become 
known through the Hindus to the Arabians, who in turn through 
their writings made it known to the Europeans in the middle ages. 

The name Tamarind is derived from the Arabian Tamare-Hindi, 
which means "Indian date," the Arabians thus adopting for it the 
name of their own finest fruit. In the early periods it was thought 
that the fruit was derived from a wild Indian palm. It was first 
accurately described in the sixteenth century. 

The fruit is an excellent purgative and was known in Europe 
from the middle ages, enjoying a reputation for all the virtues which 
were ascribed to it by the Arabs and Persians, and to this day it is 
used India for all purposes for which it was employed in those ancient 

Plate XL. 

Bauhinia tomentosa L. 
Flowering and fruiting branch. 

Leguminosae. 97 

The fruit is officially recognized in Europe and America as a 
valuable laxative and as a refrigerant in fever. As food it is used 
in curries and chutneys of which it is a pleasing ingredient. Still 
another use is made of the seeds, which after having been pulverized 
are boiled with thin glue into a paste, and form an exceedingly strong 
wood-cement, perhaps one of the strongest known. 

The wood is yellowish white, hard and rather close-grained ; 
the heartwood is comparatively small and dark purplish brown in 
color. It is highly prized but very difficult to work, and is employed 
in India for wheels, mallets, furniture, etc. 

The Tamarind is easily propagated from seed and forms an ex- 
cellent shade tree for roadsides, especially well adapted to dry lo- 

Bauhinia tomentcsa L. 
Plate XL. 

This species is an erect, branching shrub, ten to fifteen feet in 
height ; the branchlets, lower surfaces of the leaves and the pods are 
somewhat velvety tomentose. The leaves are about as wide as they 
are long and are split one-third to the base into two ovate rounded 
lobes. The flowers are pale lemon yellow, usually in pairs or single 
on axillary pedicels. The pod is about four inches long, half an inch 
wide, flattened, pointed, and contains six to ten seeds. 

This Bauhinia is a native of India, especially common in the 
northwest Provinces and extending throughout India to China, Cey- 
lon and tropical Africa. 

It is usually cultivated for ornamental purposes and flowers most 
of the year. In Honolulu it is occasionally met with, but has not 
been planted as commonly as Bauhinia monandra; plants may be 
found in Kapiolani Park and on the corner of Punahou Street and 
Wilder Avenue, opposite the Pleasanton Hotel. 

The wood is tough and close-grained, but when full-grown it is 
very soft. As a medicine the plant is antidysenteric and useful in 
liver complaints. A decoction of the root-bark is useful in inflam- 
mation of the liver, while the dried buds and young flowers are pre- 
scribed in dysenteric affections. From the bark the natives of India 
prepare a durable fibre. 

Plate XLI. 

Bauhinia monandra Kurz. 

St. Thomas Tree. 
Flowering and fruiting specimen. 

Leguminosae. 99 

Bauhinia monandra Kurz. 

St. Thomas Tree. 

Plate XLI. 

This Bauhinia is a small or medium-sized tree with long, spread- 
ing branches. The leaves are from four to five inches, both in length 
and width, and cleft about half way to the base, the lobes are roun- 
ded, the base is cordate. The racemes are few-flowered and axillary. 
The corolla is about four inches in diameter, the petals are spread- 
ing, narrowly obovate, long-clawed, pink-purple with numerous 
darker dots, the upper petal is much darker than the others. It has 
only one single stamen, hence the specific name. The pod is stout, 
thick, about eight inches long and one inch wide. 

It is probably a native of tropical America, but is now culti- 
vated for ornamental purposes in many tropical countries. In Hono- 
lulu it is commonly met with in parks and private grounds. 

Cassia siamea Lamk. 

(Syn. Cassia florida Vahl.) 

Kassod Tree. 

Plate XLII. 

The Kassod Tree is of rather low stature with twiggy branch- 
lets which are covered with a fine gray down. The leaves are one- 
half to one foot long, and the leaflets are oblong, of a bluish hue 
very strongly veined, distinctly stalked and two to three inches long. 
The bright yellow flowers, which are not veined, are borne on one- 
half to one foot-long panicles both axillary and terminal. The pod 
is almost straight, flat, distinctly stalked, six to nine inches long, and 
one-half inch wide, and of firm texture. 

It is a native of South India, Burmah, Ceylon, and is also dis- 
tributed over the Malayan Peninsula and Siam. As already stated, 
it is a moderate-sized tree, with smooth bark. The sapwood is 
whitish and rather large, the heartwood brown or almost black, 
rather hard and durable. 

In Burmah the wood is employed for mallets and walking-sticks, 
while in India, especially South India, little is known of it, but is 
considered a fine fuel in Ceylon. 

In Honolulu the tree has been more or less extensively planted 
in private grounds especially along King and Beretania streets, where 
it can be easily recognized by its long terminal as well as axillary 

Plate XLII. 

Cassia siamea Lam. 
Flowering and fruiting specimen. 

Leguminosae. 101 

panicles of yellow flowers. The exact date of introduction into this 
Territory is not known to the writer, but dates back evidently to 
the time of Dr. W. Hillebrand in the early seventies. It flowers in 
late summer and the early part of autumn when all of our other 
showy leguminous trees have laid down their bright colored robes. 

Cassia alata Linn. 


Cassia alata is a small, short-lived shrub, with thick, downy 
branches, the equally pinnate leaves are from one and a half to 
two feet long ; the leaflets, of which there are sixteen to twenty- 
eight per leaf, are oblong, have a broad apex and increase in size 
upward. The inflorescence is terminal, spike-like often a foot and 
a half long and bears large yellow flowers. The pods are straight, 
and have a papery wing running from end to end, hence the name 
alata (winged). 

The bark is useful as tanning material in India. The leaves, 
which enjoy a medicinal reputation among the natives of India, who 
employ them as a local application in skin diseases, are said to cure 
all poisonous bites, as well as ringworm, when crushed and applied 

It is a native of tropical America but is now widely distributed. 
In Honolulu it is not plentiful but can be met with in gardens 
where it is planted as an ornamental shrub. 

Cassia glauca Lam. A native of South-eastern Asia, is a small 
tree very commonly planted and even naturalized in and about Hono- 
lulu and probably in other parts of the Territory. It has yellow 
flowers borne in corymbs and thin papery pods which open on one 
side. The bark is said to be of medicinal value in diabetes when 
given mixed with water and sugar. 

Cassia laevigata Willd., also of early introduction, resembles 
Cassia glauca but is a shrub and differs from the latter in the pods 
which are round instead of flat, with the seeds arranged horizontally 
in septae or divisions. It is especially common in Xuuanu and Pauoa 
Valley, where it grows profusely over fences along water courses. 
The natives call it Kalomona. 

Plate XLIII. 

Cassia fistula Linn. 

Golden Shower. 
Flowering branch. 

Leguminosae. 103 

Cassia fistula L. 
Golden Shower, The Indian Laburnum, Purging Cassia. 

Plate XLIII. 

The Golden Shower is a very handsome, moderate-sized tree 
which becomes bare during the winter months, and brings forth, dur- 
ing the early summer or late spring, long racemes of golden yellow 
flowers, which are followed in the fall by long, cylindrical, woody 
pods twenty to thirty inches in length. 

The Golden S.hower is a native of India and Ceylon, growing 
wild in the sub-Himalayan tracts, from the Kashia hills to Peshawar 
in the northwest frontier Province, and extends through Central 
India. It hardly grows taller than twenty feet and has rather droop- 
ing branches. It is suitable to rather dry regions, but thrives also 
in moist districts ; in its native home it ascends to an elevation of 
three thousand feet. 

The trunk of this tree exudes a reddish juice which solidifies and 
becomes gummy. The bark is used in tanning ; a red dye is also 
extracted from it. 

The root, bark, and the pulp of the fruit are employed medi- 
cinally, especially the latter, which is a simple purgative. It is quite 
safe and may be given to children. The bark and leaves are also 
valued, and are used externally in skin diseases, especially in ring- 

The flowers, which are exceedingly showy, are used in temple 
ceremonies in Ceylon. 

The wood of the Golden Shower varies from a gray or yellowish 
red to brick red. The heartwood is quite hard, and of small diameter, 
and makes excellent posts, while the sapwood is very large. The 
wood is considered quite durable, but owing to the small size of 
the trees cannot be used for timber. 

In Honolulu the Golden Shower is planted gregariously on ac- 
count of its fine drooping racemes of yellow flowers. Certain streets 
have been planted with Golden Shower only, such as Pensacola 
Street, while others have been planted with its rivals, the Pink 
Shower, Cassia nodosa, and Delonix regia, the flame tree of Mada- 

Cassia grandis Linn. 
Pink Shower or Horse Cassia. 

The American Pink Shower grows to a height of fifty feet or 
more and is an elegant tree with more or less ascending branches. 

Plate XLIV. 

Cassia nodosa Ham. 

Pink and White Shower. 
Flowering branch. 

Leguminosae. 105 

Its pinnate leaves are eight inches in length, alternate, and have 
from ten to fifteen pairs of oblong leaflets which are covered with 
fine soft hair of a copper color, similar to the young branchlets. The 
flowers are borne in abundant racemes which are shorter than the 
leaves. The flower, flowerstalk, and calyx are clothed with a grayish 
pubescence. The corolla is deep pink, about an inch in expansion. 
The pod is larger than that of any other cultivated Cassia in Hono- 
lulu, being a foot and a half in length and an inch or more thick. 
It is rough, woody and has two prominent ridges on one side. The 
pulp has an offensive odor. 

Like Cassia nodosa, it is an exceedingly handsome species and 
flowers during the months of February and March and is practicallv 
out of flower in the early part of April ; it is deciduous or partly so 
while in flower. 

It is a native of South America but occurs also on the islands of 
the Carribean Sea. On account of its beautiful inflorescence it has 
been cultivated in many tropical countries and is well established 
in Honolulu. 

Cassia nodosa Ham. 

Pixk and White Shower. 

Plate XLIV. 

Cassia nodosa, formerly known as Gathartocarpus, is a tree of 
moderate size, with long drooping branches which are slightly downy; 
the leaves are a foot or more long and are composed of twelve to 
twenty-four moderately large, oblong, distinctly stalked leaflets two 
to four inches in length, and are oblique at the base, glossy and dis- 
tinctly veined. The flowering racemes are short, corymbose and 
are produced from the old branches, are dense, and under half a foot 
long. The flowers are of a beautiful rose pink or whitish pink, with 
yellow stamens, the pedicels are twice as long as the flowers. The 
pod when mature is about a foot long and a half an inch thick. 

This magnificent flowering tree is one of the most commonly 
cultivated ornamental plants in Honolulu, where it has been much 
used for street planting. During the months of May and June it 
bears a profusion of bright pink rose-scented flowers and is an object 
of great beauty. The flowers are followed by cylindrical pods and 
the tree finally becomes bare during the winter months. 

It is a native of India and ranges from the Eastern Himalaya 
to the Malay Isles and the Philippines. In Hawaii the tree is never 

Plate XLV. 

Delonix regia (Boj.) Raf. 
Poinciana regia, flowering specimen with pod. 

Leguminosae. 107 

very tall, but in Java the writer has seen specimens over fifty feet 
in height. 

A closely allied species, if indeed at all distinct from the above, 
is Cassia Javanica, recorded by Hillebrand as cultivated in Hono- 
lulu. It is supposed to differ from the former by its smaller and 
more obtuse leaflets; the inflorescence is the same. 

Haematoxylum campechiarmm Linn. 
Logwood or Bloodwood Tree. 

The Bloodivood Tree reaches a height of thirty to forty-five feet, 
but has a short trunk rarely attaining a height of six or nine feet, 
growing very irregular and continuing into large straight branches. 
The leaves are abruptly pinnate with three to four pairs of small 
obovate obtuse leaflets which are rigid-veined. The fragrant flowers 
are copious, in dense axillary racemes, petals bright yellow, with 
ten free stamens at the base. The pod is flat, membranous, and nar- 
rowed at both ends. 

The tree is rather handsome when in flower. It is a native of 
Central America and the West Indies, but is cultivated in many 
tropical countries. In Honolulu only a few trees can be found, as 
on Wilder Avenue and in the Government Nursery grounds on 
King Street. 

The wood is very hard and heavy, compact in texture, dark 
purple in color, with darker stripes, occasionally marked with orange, 
especially towards the sapwood. It is chiefly employed in the pro- 
duction of dye, but is also used by woodturners. 

Delonix regia (Boj.) Raf. 


Plate XLV. 

The Poinciana regia, whose proper name is Delonix regia, is a 
deciduous, rapidly growing tree with a flat crown, though reaching 
a height of sixty feet or more; the leaves which are gracefully bi- 
pinnate have ten to twenty pairs of pinnae, each pinna with many 
small oval leaflets. The flowers are arranged in terminal racemes, 
and are extremely showy, being bright scarlet or red and yellow and 
quite large. The upper petal is usually striped with yellow, while 
the four lower are all red. The pod is flat, strap-shaped, somewhat 
curved, and about twenty-four inches long and two inches wide. 

The Poinciana is a native of Madagascar and is one of the 

Plate XLVI. 

Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) S\v. 
Flowering and fruiting specimens of Pride of Barbados. 

Leguminosae. 109 

handsomest flowering trees. It has been introduced into many tropi- 
cal countries, and has been in these islands since about 1855, when 
it was introduced probably by Dr. Hillebrand. It has been planted 
in avenues of late and will soon make a fine showing. Its spring and 
summer attire of beautiful green graceful foliage and large scarlet 
blossoms, makes up for its bareness during the winter, when the 
tree is really ungainly. 

The wood of the Poinciana regia is white to light yellowish in 
color, loose-grained, and takes a fine polish. 

The tree yields a yellowish or reddish brown gum containing 
oxalate of lime. When placed in water this gum does not dissolve 
but forms an opalescent mucilage. 

Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Lw. 

Pride of Barbados. 

Plate XLVI. 

The Pride of Barbados is a small, erect, somewhat spiny bush, 
or occasionally a small tree reaching a height of from four to twenty 
feet, but rarely more. Its flowers are borne in terminal racemes, and 
are either yellow or red and yellow. It is a native of tropical Ameri- 
ca, but has been in cultivation in nearly all tropical countries and 
has even become naturalized in these islands. It is usually planted 
as a hedge or scattered bushes. It can be seen nearly all over town 
in various gardens and especially at Kapiolani Park, Waikiki. It 
deserves to be cultivated, but has been rather neglected in Hono- 
lulu where it has sprung up of its own accord in waste places. Its 
showy flowers make it quite attractive, especially as it remains in 
flower all the year round. 

The leaves as well as the flowers and seeds have been employed 
medicinally ; the former are said to be purgative. 

In India the shrub is sacred to the God Shiva. The natives of 
India make ink from the charred wood. 

Caesalpinia coriaria Willd. 

American Sumach or Divi-divi. 

Plate XLVI I. 

The Divi-divi is a small tree with finely bi-pinnate foliage of a 
dark green color. The leaflets number sixteen to twenty-four pairs, 
are oblong linear and blunt. The flowers are white and arranged 

Plate XL VII. 

Caesalpinia coriaria Willd. 
Divi-divi, fruiting branch. 

Leguminosae. Ill 

in contracted compound racemes. The legume or pod is one and a 
half to two inches long, laterally incurved, flatly compressed, some- 
what convex on the outer, concave on the inner side and six to eight 

The sinuous pods of the Dwi-divi contain a large quantity of a 
very powerful and quickly acting tanning material which is very 
valuable. The tree is cultivated in India and other tropical coun- 
tries mainly for its seeds, but in Honolulu only a few specimens 
are extant. Here it is mainly grown as a curiosity, rather than for 
either beauty or usefulness. One tree may be found in the Govern- 
ment Nursery grounds on King Street and another in the courtyard 
at Hilo, Hawaii. The pods have still another use; a powder is pre- 
pared which is of a light yellow color and astringent to taste ; it is 
used as an antiperiodic in cases of intermittent fever, and as such 
it has been tried with excellent results in India. 

The Dwi-divi is a native of South America and the West Indies, 
found mainly in marsh)- situations in New Granada, Mexico, Nor- 
thern Brazil and Jamaica. 

Caesalpinia sappan Linn. 
Sappan Wood. 

Caesalpinia sappan Linn. The Sappan Wood is a small thorny 
tree reaching a height of fifteen feet with leaves a foot and a half 
long composed of about twenty opposite pinnae with twenty to 
thirty leaflets, which are oblong-rhomboid, oblique, and are attached 
at the lower corner. The flowering panicles are often as long as 
the leaves and are terminal. The flowers are an inch in diameter 
and yellow; the pods oblong to oblong obovate, hard, shining, about 
three inches long and one and a half wide, with a hard recurved beak 
at the upper angle. 

The Sappan Wood yields a valuable red dye which is, however, 
also prepared from the pods and bark, while the root is supposed to 
afford a yellow dye. 

Sappan Wood is mostly used in calico-printing, it is steeped in 
water and yields a red dye. It is, however, not permanent. The 
wood, though chiefly used as a dye, is said to be a useful astringent, 
containing tannic and gallic acids; it is given internally in decoction 
and is useful in certain forms of skin diseases. The natives of 
India use it also as a blood purifier. It is a native of Malay and 
India but is not a common tree in Honolulu whither it was intro- 
duced in the earlv sixties. 

Plate XLVIII. 

Peltophorum inerme (Roxb.) Naves 
Yellow Poinciana, flowering and fruiting branch. 

Leguminosae. 113 

Peltophorum inerme (Roxb.) Naves 

( Syn. Peltophorum ferrugineum Benth.) 

Yellow Poinciana. 

Plate XLVIII. 

1 he so-called Yellow Poinciana is usually a tree twenty-five to 
fifty feet or even more in height, possessing a dense crown of spread- 
ing branches with the younger parts and flowering panicles brown- 
tomentose. The leaves are eight to sixteen inches long with ten to 
fifteen pairs of opposite pinnae, these again with ten to fifteen pairs 
of oblong leaflets. The calyx is brown tomentose, the corolla yellow ; 
the pods are oblong, two and a half to three and a half inches long, 
longitudinally veined and contain from one to four seeds. 

This handsome shade tree which flowers during the summer 
months and the early fall is a native of Ceylon, Malaya and extends 
to Northern Australia. It is commonly cultivated in tropical coun- 
tries on account of its symmetrical crown and handsome large yellow 
flowering panicles. When in fruit it is also conspicuous by its red- 
dish pods, which become dark brown when mature. It is extensively 
cultivated in Honolulu, being planted in avenues, especially in 
Manoa Valley, while it can also be found in nearly even - yard in 
Honolulu. It is particularly well suited to dry districts and often 
flowers twice a year at irregular seasons, but usuallv only in the 
late summer. 

Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. 
The Black Beax, Moretox Bay Chestxut. 

1 he name Castanospermum is derived from the Latin Castanea= 
Chestnut, and spermum=seed. It is a tall glabrous tree with leaves 
one and a half feet long which are unequally pinnate, possessing 
eleven to fifteen ovate to broadly-oblong leaflets. The flowers, 
borne in racemes, are fleshy and resemble pea blossoms. They van- 
in color from yellow to orange and coral red, and are quite hand- 
some. The pod is eight to nine inches long, about two broad, and 
almost round ; the valves are thick and hard and contain three to 
five large chestnut-like seeds which are eaten by the natives of Aus- 
tralia to which country the tree is peculiar. 

The native prepares the seeds for food by first steeping them in 
water for eight to ten days, after which the seeds are dried in the 
sun, roasted upon hot stones and pounded into a meal. 

114 Leguminosae. 

The seeds when eaten act as a strong laxative whether pre- 
viously soaked or roasted. Owing to their highly indigestible char- 
acter, the beans kill stock, the indigestible portion forming lumps in 
the stomach, on account of which the stock owners of Australia have 
waged war against this tree. 

The wood of the Black Bean resembles walnut, to which it is 
scarcely inferior. It is often very beautiful in its markings and pol- 
ishes readily, moreover, it is quite durable and will last any number 
of years underground. 

In its native habitat the tree often reaches a height of sixty to 
seventy feet with a trunk of two to three feet in diameter. In Hono- 
lulu the writer knows of only one tree, planted by Dr. W. Hille- 
brand in his grounds on Nuuanu Avenue, where it flowers and fruits 
every year. The tree can be propagated from seed, and as it is an 
object of beauty should be freely planted. 

Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. 

The Sesban is rather a small tree, rarely attaining a height of 
over twenty feet, and is not at all well established in Honolulu. It 
is a short-lived tree with very soft wood, bearing large, edible, white 
flowers and long sickle-shaped pods. The leaves are long and nar- 
row, with twenty to forty pairs of oblong, pale green leaflets. It is 
now in cultivation in many tropical countries and is distributed from 
India to Mauritius, Malay and Australia. It yields a gum of a 
garnet red color which becomes nearly black when exposed to the 
air, and is very astringent. The bark, of which the inner portion 
yields a good fibre, is also astringent and has been employed in in- 
fusions in the first stages of small-pox and other eruptive fevers. In 
India the juice of the leaves and flowers forms a popular remedy 
for headache and nasal catarrh ; it is blown into the nostrils and 
produces a copious discharge of fluid which relieves the painful pres- 
sure. The same juice is also squeezed into the eye to cure dimness 
of vision. The leaves and flowers as well as pods are eaten by the 
poorer natives of India in curries and as a vegetable. They are 
strongly laxative when taken too freely. A variety with red flowers 
is also under cultivation but less common. It is known botanically 
as var. cocci nea. 

Sesbania sesban (L. ) Merrill, the Egyptian rattle pod, a cosmo- 
politan of the tropics, is also met with in Honolulu and vicinity. It 
has small yellowish purple flowers, and long, very thin, terete pods 

Leguminosae. 115 

which open and become spirally twisted when mature. It is a small 
ungainly tree of no ornamental value whatever. 

Pterocarpus indicus Willd. 
The Andaman Redwood. 
Narra (in the Philippines). 

The Narra, or Andaman Redwood, is a large and lofty tree found 
in Burmah, the Andaman Islands, Philippines, China, Malay, and 
Polynesia. The leaves are three to six inches long, have seven to 
eleven ovate leaflets which are bluntly pointed, and are arranged 
alternately on the leaf rhachis. The flowering panicles are in the 
axils of the leaves, are branching, and bear numerous yellow flowers. 
The seed pod is circular in outline, short-beaked, flat, and of a papery 

The sapwood of the Xarra is small, while the heartwood is dark 
red, close-grained, moderately hard, quite durable and is not attacked 
by white ants. As it seasons well, takes a fine polish, and is easily 
worked, it is employed for furniture, carts, etc. In the Andaman 
Islands it reaches an enormous size and is said to be the most useful 
wood. In the Philippines it grows usually wild on the flat coastal 
plains behind mangrove swamps and scattered along streams in the 
low hills. It loves light and loses its leaves for a short time during 
the year. The tree exudes a gum which has been used commercially 
in India. 

It was introduced into Honolulu and the Islands generally a few 
decades ago. Good-sized trees may be found but not very many ; a 
good specimen may be seen on the grounds of the Board of Agricul- 
ture and Forestry. It reaches a height of seventy-five feet or more, 
with an average diameter of one and a half to two feet. 

Pongamia mitis (L.) Merrill 

The Pongamia is a rather tall erect tree or occasionally climber 
with glabrous branches and leaves. The leaflets are opposite, five to 
seven in number, oblong or ovate, pointed and stalked, and two to 
four inches long. The pale purplish flowers are half an inch long 
and are arranged in simple peduncled axillary racemes, nearly the 
length of the leaves. The pod is woody, glabrous, about a fourth of 
an inch thick, one and a half to two inches long, with a short re- 
curved point. 

It is a native of India, ranging from the Central and Eastern 

Plate XLIX. 

Piscidia erythrina Linn 

Fish Poison Tree. 
Flowering and fruiting specimen. 

Leguminosae. 117 

Himalaya to Ceylon, Malacca, North Australia, Polynesia and the 

It is not very common in Honolulu but deserves to be cultivated 
on account of its drooping branches and rather handsome flowers. 
So far only a few mature trees can be found, the best ones in the 
garden of Dr. Wm. Hillebrand, who introduced it into Hawaii 
about hft_\" years or more ago. 

It yields a thick, black opaque gum, but hardly of sufficient quan- 
tity to be useful. From the seeds an oil is extracted in India which 
is used for illuminating and for medicinal purposes; it is of a light 
orange-brown color and bitter to the taste. 

The bitter principle of the oil is not due to an alkaloid but is 
apparently contained in a resin. The oil, which is known as Kur- 
runje Oil, is described as a useful remedy in skin diseases and rheu- 
matism, and is a remedial agent in cases of scabies and other cutan- 
eous diseases. The wood is moderately hard and white, turning yellow 
on exposure. The leaves make a fine manure for wet cultivation and 
are effective in destroying blight. 

Piscidia erythrina L. 

Fish Poisox Tree. 

Plate XLIX. 

Piscidia erythrina is the only species in the genus and is a tree 
of medium size. The leaves are odd-pinnate and the oblong or ellip- 
tical leaflets are opposite. The whitish flowers which have a purplish 
tinge are small, six to eight lines long and arranged in short lateral 
racemes. The pod is two to four inches long, compressed, and bears 
along each margin two broad membraneous longitudinal wings. The 
pod contains six to eight seeds which are oblong, black and sub- 

In Honolulu the writer knows of several trees which adorn 
Thomas Square Park, and are objects of beauty when in flower. 

It is a native of the West Indies, Florida and Mexico. 

The bark of Piscidia is used as a narcotic in stupefying fish. 

Inocarpus edulis Forst. 
The Ivi or Tahitiax Chestxut. 

The Ivi bears a thick crown of oblong leathery leaves, and small 
white flowers emitting a delicious perfume. The fruits are kidney- 
shaped and contain a kernel resembling chestnuts in taste. 

Plate L. 

Erythrina indica Lam. 
Flowering specimen of the Coral Tree or Tiger's Claw. 

Leguminosae. 1 19 

The Ivi is a very peculiar tree and its position in the natural 
order of plants is doubtful and has puzzled the botanists consider- 
ably. The flowers are not papilionaceous and the fruit is not a gen- 
uine legume but a drupe. The coriaceous leaves are simple, another 
fact which estranges this plant from the family Leguminosae. 

There are a few trees of this species cultivated in Airs. Mary E. 
Foster's grounds. 

It is a native of Fiji and other south Polynesian islands, ranging 
to New Guinea and the Indian Archipelago, where it reaches a height 
of sixty to eighty feet. 

The seed is baked or boiled and eaten without further prepara- 
tion, or grated is made into pudding or bread. The bark is astringent. 

It is stated in the records of the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural 
Society that it was first planted by G. Wundenberg at Hanalei, 
Kauai", in 1849. 

Erythrina indica Lam. 

Foreigx or Indian Wiliwili. 

Tiger's Claw, Indian Coral Tree. 

Plate L. 

The Erythrina indica, the generic name being derived from the 
Greek word red, alluding to the bright red flowers, is a deciduous 
tree reaching a height of forty-five feet ; the branches and branchlets 
are stout, and armed with many sharp prickles ; the leaflets, of which 
there are three in a leaf, have a broad base and are nearly triangular 
in outline ; the racemes are terminal and bear numerous large red 
flowers before the appearance of any foliage. The pods are four to 
eight inches long and contain several dark carmine colored seeds the 
size of a bean. It is a moderate-sized, quickly growing tree, occurring 
throughout India from the foot of the Himalayas into Burmah, but 
now cultivated all over the tropics. In Honolulu numerous trees of 
this species are grown in various gardens and in private grounds. 

In India the red flowers are dried and after having been boiled 
yield a red dye; the bark is also employed for dyeing and tanning 
purposes, as well as yielding an excellent fibre of a pale straw color. 
Medicinally the bark is used as a febrifuge and also as a collyrium 
in opthalmia, while the juice of the leaves is considered a good ca- 
thartic and is employed similarly to the bark in conjunctivitis. 

The wood of the Indian Coral Tree, though open-grained and 
very light, is durable and does not split or warp. It is used for 
boxes, toys, trays, etc., and is also good for firewood. Much of the 

120 Leguminosae-Oxalidaceae-Rutaceae. 

lacquered-ware of the different parts of India is made of the wood of 
this tree. 

As it is bare for several months during the year and as the 
flowers and leaves are produced separately at different seasons, it 
is not a choice tree for ornamental purposes unless it is desired rather 
as an oddity. 

A number of other species belonging to the genus Erythrina are 
in cultivation in Honolulu. Mention may be made of the shrubby 
species E. crista galli L. ; Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk. ) Merrill, 
formerly known as E. lithosperma, and E. fusca Lour, of which a 
single specimen occurs on Anapuni Street. There remain a few 
other species which the writer has not as yet been able to determine, 
owing to the large number of species in the genus, and the lack of 
a proper monograph on this difficult group of plants. 


Xo this family belongs Averrhoa carambola L., a native of tropi- 
cal America and now cultivated for its greenish-yellow, fleshy, angu- 
larly lobed fruit. Of the family Geraniaceae, the genus Pelargon- 
ium (the geraniums of the gardeners) is represented by a few species. 


Orange Family. 

Of the many members of this family those of the genus Citrus 
are the most planted, but as they are not within the scope of this 
work the writer refers anyone interested in them to G. P. Wilder's 
book on the "Fruits of the Hawaiian Islands." Other genera worth 
mentioning are Clausena and Aegle. The former is represented by 
the Wampi, Clausena Wampi Oliv., a native of China, and the latter 
by the Bhel or Bael fruit Aegle marmelos Correa, a native of East- 
India. One of the ornamental species belonging to this family is the 

Murraya exotica L. 

Mock Orange. 

The Alack Orange is a shrub or small tree ten to twenty feet in 
height and glabrous throughout. The leaves are composed of usually 
three to seven glossy leaflets. The flowering cymes are short and 
few flowered. The flowers are white and very fragrant. The fruit 

Rutaceae-Burseraceae-Meliaceae. 121 

is ovoid, fleshy, of a red color and about half an inch long. It flowers 
from July to September. It is a native of India and China and ex- 
tends southward to Australia and Polynesia. In India it grows in 
the outer Himalaya up to an elevation of 4500 feet, but is now cul- 
tivated nearly all over the tropics for ornamental reasons. It is also 
known as Satinwood. The wood is light yellow, close grained, and 
exceedingly hard. It resembles boxwood, and has been similarly em- 
ployed. Quite a number of these shrubs may be seen scattered all 
over Honolulu in private premises as well as in parks. 


Canarium Nut Family. 

The only genus to be recorded as under cultivation in Hawaii is 
Canarium of which Canarium commune L., the Canarium or Pili 
Nut Tree, is the sole representative. It is a native of the Moluccas 
and Java. It is a slow grower but lends itself wonderfully for avenue 
or street planting, where durability and longivity rather than quick 
shade are required. The finest avenue in the world is the Canarium 
Avenue which leads into the famous botanic gardens at Buitenzorg in 
Java. An avenue of this wonderful tree would indeed be an asset 
to Honolulu. 


Santol Family. 

The Santol Family is represented in Honolulu by several genera 
which will be treated below. Mention must be made of a species 
belonging to the genus Toona of which there is only a single tree 
in Honolulu. It is the Toona febrifuga (Forst.) M. Roem. a 
native of Java and India. The genus Toona and several of its 
species are not recognized in Index Kewensis, and Toona febrifuga is 
listed as a synonym of Cedrela Toona Roxb. which in fact is identi- 
cal with Toona ciliata Roem. Toona febrifuga has entire pointed 
leaflets, large racemes and large capsules covered with lenticels, while 
Toona ciliat.a=( Cedrela Toona) has short racemes and small, smooth 

It is a large tree fifty to sixty feet in height with long drooping 
branches. The bark yields a resinous gum, and the flowers a red 
and a yellow dye which is obtained by boiling the flowers. Medicin- 
ally the bark is used as a mild febrifuge. The tree w x as introduced 
by Dr. Hillebrand in whose residential grounds the original specimen 

122 Meliaceae. 

still flourishes, and bears fruits profusely. The fresh fruits have 
a strong odor reminiscent of garlic. 

Swietenia Mahcgani L. 
The True Mahogany. 

The True Mahogany is a large evergreen tree with abruptly pin- 
nate, glabrous leaves consisting of six to ten leaflets, which are ovate- 
lanceolate and pointed ; the woody capsule is dehiscent from the 
base, ovoid in outline and three to four inches long; the seeds 
have a terminal, oblong wing. 

The Mahogany is a native of the West Indies extending to 
Mexico, Honduras and Peru. 

This tree furnishes the very valuable red mahogany wood of 
commerce. The heartwood is reddish-brown, seasons well, and is 
easily worked. It is used mainly for furniture but occasionally also 
in ship-building. The tree yields a gum which is liquid at first but 
dries up readily into white brittle fragments. In the West Indies 
the bark is sometimes employed as a substitute for cinchona. 

There are several mature trees in Honolulu, one which bears 
fruit profusely on upper King Street, others on the grounds of Luna- 
lilo Home. Lately Kalakaua Avenue has been planted with these 
trees. A great many woods resembling the True Mahogany in color 
have been termed Mahogany, as for example the wood of Acacia 
Koa, the native koa which has reached the market as Hawaiian 

Melia Azedarach L. 

Pride of India or Persian Lilac. 

The Pride of India reaches a height of over forty feet but has a 
rather short trunk and broad crown. It is bare during a short 
period of the year. Its leaves have three to four pinnae with three to 
twelve ovate-lanceolate, deeply serrate or sometimes lobed leaflets. 
The flowers are lilac with a strong scent of honey. The fruit is a 
drupe, yellow when ripe and three-fourths of an inch long. 

As the; name implies it is a native of India, and also of Burmah. 
It is able to stand more cold than the Neem tree, growing at eleva- 
tions of as much as 9,000 feet. 

The leaves and flowers are used medicinally, a poultice prepared 
of them is employed to relieve nervous headaches. In America where 
the tree is considerably planted in the southern states a decoction 

Meliaceae. 123 

of the leaves has been used in hysteria, also externally against 
leprosy. The fruit is considered poisonous. The natives of India 
wear a necklace of them to avert contagion. The root bark of the 
tree is used as an anthelmintic in the United States. It is bitter and 
nauseous to the taste and gives up its properties to boiling water. 

The sap wood is yellowish white, the heartwood red. and soft, it 
is handsomely marked and takes a fine polish. 

The tree has been planted in the Hawaiian Islands to a great 
extent mainly in the uplands as on Maui, Hawaii and Kauai, on the 
latter Island the birds have spread the drupes and thus the tree has 
become naturalized and has spread considerably. In Honolulu the 
tree can occasionally be met with, having been planted for ornamental 
purposes. It is the China berry tree of the southern and western 
States of the Union. 

Azadirachta indica A. Juss. 
Xeem or Nim Tree. 

The Neem Tree is a large evergreen glabrous tree with hard 
red heartwood. The leaves are alternate and odd pinnate with 
seven to nine pairs of leaflets which are serrate, the odd leaflet 
often wanting. The flowers are white, strongly honey-scented, and 
arranged in axillary panicles which are shorter than the leaf. The 
drupe is the size of an olive, first yellow but afterwards becoming 
purple, it is one-celled and one-seeded. 

The Xeem is a native of Burmah growing wild in dry regions 
of the Irrawady Valley but is cultivated throughout India and else- 
where in the tropics. It is one of the commonest trees planted in 
India especially the northern and northwestern provinces where the 
writer saw it extensively used along the Grand Trunk Road which 
leads from Bengal to Peshawar. It is planted by the natives near 
dwellings with the belief that its presence improves materially the 
health of a community. 

A gum which the tree exudes is esteemed as a stimulant. The 
seeds, by boiling or pressure, yield a fixed acrid bitter oil of a deep 
yellow color, which is employed medicinally as an anthelmintic and 
antiseptic, and by the poorer classes of India for burning in lamps. 

The natives of India cook the leaves with other vegetables in the 
form of curry or eat them parched. They are also used to protect 
cloth, paper and books from the ravages of insects. The tree is held 
sacred by the Hindus who believe that by eating the leaves they 
acquire freedom from disease. 

Plate LI. 

Amoora grandifolia Walp. 
Fruiting specimen. 

Meliaceae-Malpighiaeeae. 125 

In Honolulu the writer knows of only one large tree, with a 
trunk of over two feet in diameter and large surface roots. It was 
introduced and planted by Dr. W. Hillebrand on his premises. 
Another specimen is in the grounds of Dr. R. W. Anderson on 
the corner of Beretania and Keeaumoku Streets. 

Amoora grandifolia Walp. 
Plate LI. 

Amoora grandifolia Walp., a tall or medium sized tree with 
large unequally pinnate leaves, is one of about twenty species be- 
longing to the genus Amoora, the name Amoora having been derived 
from the Bengali vernacular name Amur, applied to Amoora cucullata 
Roxb., the type of the genus. 

The species here discussed is little known. It is a native of 
Malacca and supposed to be identical with Amoora A phanamixis 

When in fruit the tree makes a fine showing, as the long drooping 
racemes are usually loaded with the pink to rose-red, globose fruits, 
which when open expose the brownish black, shining seeds, which are 
partly enclosed by a bright red to orange colored arillus. 

There are very few trees of this species in Honolulu. One 
can be found in the Government Nursery grounds, others on Young 
Street and in Mrs. Jaeger's premises respectively. It was probably 
introduced by Mr. Jaeger, who was the first commissioner of 
agriculture in these Islands. 


Several species of trees belonging to various genera are sparingly 
cultivated in Honolulu. Two of them, xllalpighia glabra L. and a 
species of Bunchosia bear edible fruits. 

Of ornamental value and also sparingly cultivated is a small 
shrub with terminal panicles of bright yellow flowers and small, 
glaucous leaves; it is the Galphimia glauca Cav. of the botanists and 
is a native of tropical America. Specimens may be seen in the late 
Gov. Cleghorn's residential grounds and at Mrs. M. E. Foster's 

Plate LII. 

Acalypha Wilkesiana Muell.-Arg. 

Red Acalypha. 

The pendulous spikes bear the staminate, the shorter terminal 

the pistillate flowers. 

Euphorbiaceae. 127 


Euphorbia Family. 

The Euphorbiaceae have quite a number of representatives both 
among the native and introduced species. Of the latter the orna- 
mental species only concern us. There are about Honolulu a great 
many weeds which belongs to this family. Several genera are repre- 
sented by only a single species which in turn is represented only by 
a single specimen as for example Bridelia glauca Blume a native of 
Java, cultivated in the grounds of the Government Nursery on King 
Street. Of the genus Phyllanthus about three or four species are 
under cultivation as Phyllanthus emblica L. with edible fruits a native 
of the Mascarene Islands, East India, the Sunda Islands, China and 

There are about two specimens in Honolulu, one in the 
Mausoleum grounds, the other on Air. Jordan's premises on Wyllie 
Street. Phyllanthus distichus ( L. ) Muell.-Arg. a native of India and 
Madagascar, with edible fruits is also present. The ornamental hedge 
plant Phyllanthus nivosus Bull, the so called Snow Bush, a native of 
the Pacific Islands is the most extensively planted species ; it can be met 
with almost in every yard. It is exceedingly conspicuous even from 
afar oft" on account of the whitish-pink leaves, which gave it the 
horticultural variety name roseopictus. Jatropha multifida L. an 
ornamental shrub with umbel-like clusters of scarlet flowers and 
palmately divided leaves is sparingly cultivated. The writer knows 
of two specimens, one at the Seaside Hotel the other in the Royal 
Hawaiian Hotel grounds in Richards Street. Jatropha curcas L. is 
of early introduction and is met with in the valleys escaped from 
cultivation but not at all commonly. Sapium sebiferum ( L. ) Roxb. 
the Chinese tallow tree occurs at Lihue, Kauai. 

Of interest, though not belonging to the introduced flora is the 
Kukui, Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. extensively planted in 
private grounds, especially in Manoa Valley, and easily recognized 
by its light yellowish green angularly lobed leaves which are covered 
with a whitish pubescence underneath. Hevea brasiliensis (H. B. K. ) 
Muell.-Arg. the well known Para rubber tree may also be found oc- 
casionally, but was formerly planted for commercial purposes. 

128 Euphorbiaceae. 

Acalypha Wilkesiana Muell.-Arg. 


Plate LII. 

This species of Acalypha, a native of Fiji, is easily recognized 
by its large copper-colored leaves, which assume quite often a great 
variety of tints — pink, yellow, and brown, and then the plant is 
highly ornamental. The male and female flowers are borne separ- 
ately, each sex on a slender spike, those with staminate flowers 
drooping and those with pistillate flowers upright. It is extensively 
cultivated in the tropics as a hedge plant, the vari-colored foliage mak- 
ing a pleasing contrast against the usual sombre green of other tropical 
plants. It is easily grown from cuttings. The Fijians know the 
plant under the name Kalabuci damn or Red Kalabuci. 

Other species in cultivation are Acalypha hispida Bl. usually 
planted only as an ornamental bush and not in hedges. It is con- 
spicuous on account of the floral spikes which are purple and quite 
showy. Acalypha marginata Sprengl has smaller leaves, edged with 
carmine and a reddish brown center. 

A more commonly planted species is Acalypha cuneata Poep. et 
Endl. better known as A. obovata; it is a handsome species with 
green leaves and creamy white margins which turn to a crimson 
hue as the plant matures. Like A. Wilkesiana it is usually planted 
as a hedge, and grows freely from cuttings. 

Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Bin me 
Croton. * 

The so-called Croton is an erect, glabrous shrub or occasionally 
small tree reaching a height of often fifteen feet or more in Hono- 
lulu. The leaves are exceedingly variable in shape and color ranging 
from linear to oblong, and entire to sparingly lobed, they are undulate 
or even spirally twisted and sometimes interrupted. The color ranges 
from pale green to purple, red and yellow, some forms are spotted or 

The racemes are axillary, solitary, and about ten inches long. 
The male flowers are white. The so-called croton is a native of the 
Moluccas but is now extensively cultivated in nearly all tropical 
countries. The leaves vary tremendously in shape and color and the 

* The name True Croton is applied to the numerous species belonging to the genus 
Croton of which C. Tiglium I>. is often cultivated. 

Euphorbfaceae. 129 

Croton is by far the most variable plant in the Hawaiian Islands. 
It is planted in hedges or in scattered clumps and is quite ornamental. 
Scale insects attack it very badly and if not washed carefully the 
plant has a dilapidated appearance. 

Hura crepitans L. 

Sandbox Tree. 

Plate LIII. 

The Sandbox Tree is of medium height, thirty to forty feet, 
with a rather spreading crown and therefore often planted as a shade 
tree. The leaves are simple, broad and long stalked, heart-shaped, 
and have numerous white veins. The flowers of this tree are 
rather peculiar, the male or staminate flowers are arranged on a 
spike, while the pistillate flower is naked, with a large trumpet- 
shaped divided stigma. The fruit differs from that of other 
euphorbiaceous genera in having a capsule of numerous divisions, 
reminding one of the fruits of Malva. 

When the fruits ripen they split open with a loud report, which 
has suggested the name "Monkeys' dinner bell." 

The tree is milky throughout and decidedly poisonous, it is acrid 
and irritant. The Sandbox Tree is a native of tropical America but 
has been introduced into many tropical countries to be planted as a 
shade tree. The wood is rather soft, and fibrous in texture. The 
seeds are employed as a purgative as is also an oil expressed from 
them which is said to be less nauseous than Castor oil. In working 
this wood in the West Indies care is taken that the dust does not 
enter the eyes or nose as it is very irritant, produces inflammation, 
and may even lead to blindness. The milky juice when applied to 
the eyes causes almost immediate blindness according to reports 
from India. 

In Honolulu there are only a very few trees or perhaps only two, 
one in the Government Nursery grounds, the other on the corner of 
Punahou Street and Wilder Avenue, on the vacant park-like lot, 
opposite the Pleasanton Hotel. Owing to its poisonous character it 
is not a desirable tree. 

Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. 


The Poinsettia is a milky shrub reaching a height of twelve feet. 
The leaves are elliptical, the upper ones lanceolate and pointed, the 

Plate LIII. 

Hura crepitans Linn. 

Sand-box Tree, specimen with male (below) and female (extreme left 

above) flowers. 

Euphorbiaceae. 131 

lower ones uniformly green and only the upper ones at the time of 
flowering, uniformly bright red. The inflorescence is terminal, the 
flowers are crowded and red ; one or two large yellow glands are 
present on each of the involucres. 

The Potnsettia is only ornamental during the winter months 
about Christmas time when it comes into flower, the conspicuous part 
is not only the flowers but the upper leaves, which turn bright red. 
It is a native of tropical America and Mexico, in which latter 
country it was discovered in 1828 by Graham. It is now cultivated 
in many tropical countries and is quite common in Honolulu. The 
milk\- juice is poisonous. After flowering the plant should be cut 

Euphorbia heterophylla L., known as Painted Leaf, is also fre- 
quently cultivated but much less so than the Potnsettia. It differs 
from the latter in the very variable leaves of which the lower are 
entire, and the upper sinuately lobed and blotched with red at the 
base. It is also a native of tropical and temperate America. 

Euphorbia splendens Boj., Crown of Thorns, an erect branched 
shrub three feet in height with grayish cylindrical or angled branches, 
which are armed with slender, sharp, long spines, can be found 
planted on rockeries and also as a hedge. It is in flower practically 
all the year round, the red flowers being not unattractive. It is a 
native of Madagascar but is now widely cultivated. Plants may be 
seen at the College of Hawaii grounds and on the Punahou Campus, 
near the caretaker's house. 

Euphorbia tirucalli L. is an erect, glabrous ornamental shrub with 
green, fleshy, cylindrical branches, without leaves, and has been planted 
at Waikiki opposite the Moana Hotel. It is a native of Africa but 
has become naturalized in India. 

Euphorbia antiquorum L. is a mall cactus-like milky tree with 
three or five angled fleshy branches with spines and very few leaves, 
which are deciduous. It is cultivated in parks and private premises. 
It is a native of the dry and hot regions of India and Ceylon, where 
it is commonly planted as a hedge. Specimens may be seen in Kapi- 
olani Park, on King Street, and elsewhere. 

Euphorbia trigona Haw., a similar species with three to five 
angled, fleshy, cactus-like branches, occurs here also; it differs from 
the foregoing in having petioled, obovate-spatulate, fleshy leaves, each 
between a pair of thorns. It is closely related to E. cattimandoo. 
It is a native of the Deccan, where it occurs in dry, rocky situations. 
Specimens may be seen in Mr. G. P. Wilder's premises. 

132 Anacardiaceae. 


Mango Family. 

The most noteworthy members of the Mango Family cultivated 
in this Territory are Mangifera indica L., the Mango, a native of 
India and is here represented by many horticultural varieties. 
Spondias dulcis Willd. and Spondias lutea L., the Wi Apple and 
Hog-plum or Otaheite Apple, respectively, also Spondias mangifera 
Willd. occur. The first is a native of the South Sea Islands ; the 
second of the West Indies, and the third, of which there is only one 
tree in Honolulu, in the premises of Mrs. M. E. Foster on Nuuanu 
Street, is a native of India, where it ascends to 5000 feet elevation 
in the Himalayas. 

Anacardium occidentale L., the Cashew Nut, a native of America, 
is rarely met with ; two trees occur on Dominis Street, near Punahou. 

Of Semecarpus Anacardium L. there is only one tree to be found 
as far as the writer is aware, it grows in the grounds of Mrs. M. E. 
Foster on Nuuanu Avenue. It is a small tree and a native of the 
tropical outer Himalayas, ascending to 3500 feet elevation. It was 
introduced by Dr. Wm. Hillebrand. 

Schinus molle L. 
Pepper Tree. 

The Pepper Tree is too well known to be described. Suffice it 
to say that it is extensively cultivated in Honolulu for street plant- 
ing as well as on lawns in private grounds. It does not stand the 
wind well and is easily uprooted, it ; is also subject to a fungus and 
when it shows signs of disease should be severely cut back. 

It is a native of tropical America, especially Brazil, but is now 
cultivated both in semi-tropical as well as tropical countries, prin- 
cipally in the Americas. In Honolulu it is of comparatively recent 

A tree that has of late come into favor a great deal in Honolulu 
is the so-called Christmas-berry Tree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi., 
a much more robust species with axillary and terminal panicles of 
white flowers and globose, bright red, shining berries. 

It is a native of South America, especially of Brazil, where a 
number of varieties occur, and from where it was probably introduced. 
It fruits during the winter months. 

Closely allied to this family is the Corynocarpaceae, of which 
the Karaka Tree of New Zealand has been planted, especially on 

Anacardiaceae-Sapindaceae. 133 

Kauai in the mountains of Halemanu, where it is well established 
and already naturalized. It is known botanically as Corynocarpus 
leavigata Forster. It grows at sea-level in its native home and 
ascends to an elevation of 1200 feet. 


Soap-berry Family. 

The Soap-berry family is represented by several introduced spe- 
cies and mention must be made of Sapindus saponaria L., the Soap- 
berry Tree, which is also a native of Hawaii. Only a few trees are 
cultivated in Honolulu, one at the Government Nursery and another 
on the Beretania Street side of Airs. Jaeger's grounds. A iew trees 
of the Longan, Euphoria longana Lam. and one or two mature ones 
of the Chinese Litchi, Litchi chinensis Sonn., are also in cultivation. 

The only species planted for ornamental purposes is Harpullia 
pendula Planch, of which a specimen may be seen in the Queen's 
Hospital grounds. It is a native of Australia, and when in fruit is 
quite attractive, the black seeds being handsomely contrasted against 
the orange-yellow capsule. It is erroneously known as H. Hi/Hi 
in Honolulu. 

The family Rhamnaceiae, or Buckthorn family, is represented by 
Zizyphus jujuba Mill., the Jujube, a native of tropical Asia but now 
widely distributed. Several trees occur in Honolulu, as in the 
Queen's Hospital grounds and in the premises of Airs. M. E. Foster, 
Nuuanu Avenue. 

Of the Vitaceae, or Grape family, the genus Leea is now under 
cultivation. The writer is responsible for the introduction of three 
species: Leea manillensis Walp., from the Philippines; Leea sambu- 
cina Willd., and L. aeuleata Blume from Java. They are quick- 
growing, small trees, with handsome inflorescences, the first species 
being very attractive on account of the large red inflorescence. 

The family Elaeocarpaceae is represented by a single tree, 
Elaeocarpus grandis F. v. M. a native of Australia. A single tree 
of E. grandis occurs in the Government Nursery grounds on King 

Plate LIV. 

Berrya Amonilla Roxb. 
Trincomali Wood. 
Fruiting specimen. 

Tiliaceae-Malvaceae. 135 


Linden Family. 

Represented by the following species only : 

Berrya Amonilla Roxb. 

Trixcomali Wood. 

Plate LIV. 

The genus Btrrya, named after the late Dr. Andrew Berry, a 
Aladras botanist, consists only of a single species, here described and 

It is a large tree with ovate pointed alternate leaves which are 
heart-shaped at the base and five to seven nerved. The large flower- 
ing panicles are terminal as well as axillary. The calyx is bell-shaped 
and irregularly three to five lobed, while the corolla consists of five 
spatulate petals ; stamens are many and are inserted on a short torus. 
The fruit is a papery capsule which opens into three to four valves; 
each valve is two-winged. The seeds are hairy and when touched 
sting like the minute hair of the prickly pear. 

The Trincomali If ood is a native of South India, Burmah and 
Ceylon, but is cultivated in many tropical countries. 

In Honolulu the writer knows of two trees; one is in the Govern- 
ment Nursery grounds on King Street, where it was evidently planted 
by the first Commissioner of Agriculture, Mr. Jaeger. The uses of 
the wood are manifold. The heartwood is dark red, close grained, is 
apt to check, but otherwise quite durable. Its weight is forty-eight 
to sixty-five pounds per cubic foot. In India the wood is employed 
for carts, agricultural implements, and even for small boats, while 
in Ceylon it is employed for building and other technical purposes on 
account of its toughness and flexibility. In Burmah a fibre is made 
from the bark. 


Hibiscus Family. 

Some of the most ornamental plants found in Honolulu belong 
to this family. Most of the many-colored species of Hibiscus which 
are employed as hedge plants are the result of patient labor on the 
part of many Honolulans, as for example, W. M. Giffard, G. P. 
Wilder, A. Gartley, J. Cummins and others, while Mr. \ . Holt of 
the United States Experiment Station has devoted a great deal of his 

136 Malvaceae. 

time to the hybridization of Hibiscus, with wonderful results. The 
first successful attempts in cross-fertilization were undertaken by 
Mr. W. M. Giffard in 1902, he having produced a large number of 
many-colored hybrids. Others then took up the work and perfected 
many exquisite creations. The native white and red species were 
mostly used in crossing with H. Rosa sinensis and its hybrids. 

Other species of Hibiscus occurring in the Territory are Hibiscus 
sabdariffa, cultivated not for ornamental purposes but on account of 
the fleshy calyx, which is made into preserves; it is known as Rozelle 
on the market. Hibiscus tiliact us is indigenous in the Islands. It is 
the Hau of the natives, and is trained into arbors, for which it is 
especially adapted. Thespesia populnea, another malvaceous species, 
known locally as Milo, is also indigenous. It resembles slightly the 
Hau, but is an erect tree with straight trunk, and its rather hard 
wood takes a fine polish. Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. is a climber 
with red Hibiscus-like flowers. It is a native of tropical America and 
is sparingly cultivated in Honolulu. 

Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. 

Hibiscus macrophyllus is a medium-sized tree with the branchlets, 
petioles and inflorescence densely clothed with a soft tomentum 
mixed with long tawny fasciculate hairs a third of an inch long or 
even longer. The leaves are entire, heart-shaped, and softly tomen- 
tose on both sides; the blade is from six to twelve inches in diameter, 
with a petiole of six to ten inches. The stipules are oblong, convo- 
lute, hispid tomentose and deciduous. The flowers are borne in 
axillary pedunculate cymes, each flower being enclosed in bud by 
two large ovate deciduous bracts. The corolla is two to three inches 
in diameter, yellow, and has a dark purple center. The capsule is 
pointed and hispid. The seeds are reniform and have long tawny 
hair on the edge. 

This rather striking and well-named Hibiscus ( macro phyllus~ 
large leaved) is a native of India, where it occurs in Assam and 
Burmah, also in the Malay Peninsula and Java. In Honolulu a num- 
ber of trees of this species are in cultivation, as in Thomas Square, 
in Mrs. Foster's premises, and on the other side of Oahu, where it 
has been found wild or rather as an escape from cultivation, in the 
valleys as in Kaipapau and other smaller valleys. On Hawaii sev- 
eral trees grow on the premises of Dr. B. D. Bond of Kohala. 

Malvaceae. 137 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 
The Commox Red Hibiscus. 

The Red Hibiscus, commonly cultivated as a hedge plant in 
Honolulu, is too well-known to need description ; it is present in 
every yard in Honolulu, being usually planted in hedges. It is prob- 
ably a native of southeastern Asia, but is now in cultivation in all 
tropical and subtropical countires. 

There are now numerous varieties of Hibiscus of all colors, single 
as well as double ones. A number of Honolulu people have made 
a hobby of cross-fertilizing the red Chinese Hibiscus with some of 
the native Hibiscus, of which there are two or three white flower- 
ing species, all trees, besides two red ones and a yellow one. 

The writer would refer anyone especially interested in Hibiscus 
and their hybrids here in Honolulu to a bulletin published by the 
Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, under the title: "Orna- 
mental Hibiscus in Hawaii," by E. V. Wilcox and V. P. Holt. Bull. 
No. 29 (1913). 

It may be remarked that an infusion of the flowers produces a 
dye of a purplish hue. It is said that a red dye obtained from the 
flowers is used in coloring paper. The Chinese are said to utilize the 
flowers in a similar way and also to make a black dye from the petals 
for their hair and eyebrows. 

The flowers are considered of medicinal value, and an infusion of 
the petals is given as a demulcent. The leaves are said to be emollient 
and laxative. 

The bark, like that of //. mutabilis, yields a good fibre. 

Hibiscus schizopetalus Hook. f. 

Coral Hibiscus. 

The so-called Coral Hibiscus is an erect, glabrous shrub, four 
to twelve feet high, with the branches often elongated and drooping; 
the leaves are oblong to egg-shaped, pointed, and have toothed mar- 
gins. The flowers are borne singly in the axils of the leaves on long 
pendulous flower-stalks. The corolla is red, recurved and finely split 
into numerous slender laciniate lobes. The staminal tube is long- 
exserted and pendulous. This rather handsome species is common in 
cultivation and flowers all the year. It is in all probability a native 
of Africa, but is now cultivated in many tropical countries and can 
be found in nearly every garden of Honolulu, either as individual 
shrubs or planted as a tree hedge, as for example, on Young Street, 

Plate LV 

Hibiscus mutabilis L. 
Changeable Rose-Mallow. The double variety. 

Malvaceae. 139 

near the High School. The Coral Hibiscus has been used in Hono- 
lulu to a great extent as a male plant in crosses with other Hibiscus. 

Hibiscus mutabilis L. 

Changeable Rose-Mallow. 

Plate LV. 

The Rose- Mai I on- is an erect branched shrub, six to fifteen feet 
high, and more or less covered with short grayish stellate hairs; the 
leaves are five-lobed or five-angled, crenate, about eight inches long, 
pointed, and heart-shaped at the base. The pedicels are axillary, 
single, and three and one-half to five and one-half inches long. The 
flowers, which open white and turn pink to red as the day advances, 
are four and one-half inches in diameter, usually double, as in the 
case of the plant here figured, but sometimes single. 

This true Hibiscus resembles a Mallow, whence the name Rose- 
Mallow. It is a native of China, but is now cultivated in most tropi- 
cal countries. In Honolulu it is usually found on residential prem- 
ises as an ornamental bush, but has not been used successfully in 
crossing with other varieties or forms of Hibiscus. 

The bark of this species, like that of most of the other members 
of the genus, yields a strong fibre. The inner layer of the bark is 
soft and silky, while that of the outer layer is hard and lead-colored. 

Lagunaria patersonii D. Don. 
White Oak, Tulip Tree. 

The White Oak is a meduim-sized tree, the young parts and in- 
florscence of which are more or less covered with minute scales, but 
otherwise smooth. The leaves are oblong, three to four inches long 
and somewhat leathery, they are white underneath when young, 
glabrous and pale green on both sides when full-grown. 

The flowers are quite large and handsome, and are of a deep 
pink to purple, resembling the Hibiscus of the same family. The 
capsule is lined inside with short barbed hairs, which adhere to the 
skin, producing an irritation similar to that produced by the hair of 
the prickly pear. 

The wood is quite soft and of no commercial value, not even 
suitable for firewood. From the bark, however, is prepared a beauti- 
ful fibre. 

The If lute Oak is a native of Norfolk Island, where it grows 

Plate LVI. 

Bombax ellipticum H. B. K. 
Flowering branch; one-half natural size. 

Malvaceae-Bombaceae. 141 

scattered on the grassy hills, and is, perhaps, the largest known 
plant belonging to the Mallow tribe, reaching a height of eighty 
feet and a trunk of sixteen feet in circumference. 

In Honolulu the writer knows of only two specimens, one of 
which can be found in the grounds of the Board of Agriculture and 
Forestry, where it flowers and fruits profusely, and the other on Mrs. 
Jaeger's premises on King Street. 

It was evidently introduced and planted by Mr. Jaeger, the first 
commissioner of the above-mentioned board. In Honolulu the tree 
does not produce such large flowers as it is said to produce in its 
native home. 

As the tree is shapely in appearance, it is worthy of cultivation 
and should be planted in avenues. It is well suited for planting 
along roadsides, especially near the sea, where it could well replace 
the somber-looking Ironwood, as for example, in Kapiolani Park at 
Waikiki. It likes a humid climate and a saline atmosphere. It is 
easily propagated from seed and probably also from cuttings. 


Bombax Family. 

Of the Bombax Family, which contains about 100 species, widely 
distributed in the tropics, three genera and four species are cultivated 
in the Islands. They are all treated separately in the following 

Bombax Ceiba L. 

Cotton Tree. 

Bombax Ceiba is also a Cotton Tree, but usually of larger dimen- 
sions than Ceiba pentandra. Its trunk is very tall, often slender, and 
develops huge buttresses. Both trunk and branches are covered with 
stout, hard, conical spines. The branches are in whorls, the leaflets 
are digitate and deciduous. 

The very numerous flowers are fascicled at the end of the 
branches when the tree is bare of foliage. The capsule is ovoid, 
six to seven inches long, five-valved, and filled with a silky floss in 
which the smooth seeds are embedded. This deciduous tree occurs 
throughout the hotter forests of India and Burmah, and is widely 
distributed over Java and Sumatra. In India it ascends to an ele- 
vation of four thousand feet. The inner bark of Bombax Ceiba yields 
a good fibre, which is suitable for cordage, while the floss surround- 

Plate LVII. 

Trunk of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Jaertn. 

To left and right stems of Areca catechu L., the Betel-nut Palm, in 
Mrs. M. E. Foster's grounds, Nuuanu Avenue. 

Bombaceae. 143 

ing the seeds yields the so-called "Silk Cotton," a fibre which is, 
however, too short and soft to be spun and is therefore used like that 
of its congener, Ceiba pentandra, for stuffing pillows, mattresses, etc. 
this fibre is known as Si/nal, while that of Ceiba is known as Kapok, 
the latter fetches a much better price owing to its better quality and 
white color; it also does not become matted as is the case with S'unal 

The trunk yields a gum known in India as Mocha-ras, contain- 
ing a large proportion of tannic and gallic acids, both useful in 
medicine, as astringents. The wood of Bombax Ceiba is white, very 
soft and perishable, except under water, where it lasts rather well. 
In India the wood is used for planking, tea boxes, coffins, floats, and 
the lining of wells. 

In Honolulu there are very few trees of Bombax to be found; 
one very tall specimen occurring on the Board of Agriculture grounds 
on King Street. For some reason Bombax Ceiba does not fruit in 
Honolulu and rarely even flowers. The identification is therefore 

Bombax ellipticum H.B.K. 

In the Queen's Hospital grounds there is a species of Bombax, 
with large handsome flowers which appear before the foliage. The 
flower buds are long and cigar-shaped and open with a quite audible 
noise, after the opening of the flowers the petals curl backward 
and expose a mass of pink stamens, which make the flowers exceed- 
ingly showy. It is a native of South America and is known botani- 
cally as Bombax ellipticum H. B. K. See Plate LVI. 

The leaves of this species have five distinctly petioled leaflets 
which are prominently nerved underneath. The main petiole is 
about ten inches or more long. The tree itself is not ornamental, as 
it is bare of foliage for a period and is only about fifteen feet in 
height with very few branches. 

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. 
Silk Cottox Tree, Kapok. 
Plate LVI I. 
Ceiba pentandra differs from its relative Bombax Ceiba L. in 
its variable columnar trunk with large or often weakly defined but- 
tresses which are sometimes entirely wanting. It is a tall tree with 
a straight trunk and is prickly only when young, and branches hori- 
zontally at right angles to the trunk. The flowers are of a dirty 
white, and much smaller than those of Bombax Ceiba. The flowers 

Plate LVIII. 

Adansonia digitata Linn, 

Baobab, Bottle Tree, Monkey-bread. 

Flowering and fruiting specimen 

Bombaceae. 145 

of Ceiba pentandra have only five staminal bundles with two anthers 
each, while those of Bombax Ceiba divide into numerous filaments 
each with one anther. Ceiba pentandra is distributed from Mexico 
to the West Indies and Guiana, all over tropical Africa. East India, 
and the Malayan Archipelago. In India the tree is usually planted 
by the Tamils on the Coromandel coast about their temples. The 
flowers appear while the tree is destitute of foliage and are quickly 
followed by the leaves, while the fruits ripen in May. 

The Kapok Tree has a white, soft wood, which is very brittle 
and of no use, except in the manufacture of toys. From the bark 
of the Kapok Tree an inferior fibre, reddish in color, is sometimes 
prepared and used in India locally for ropes and paper. The floss 
from the seed is, however, of great merit, and most important com- 
mercially. The capsules are densely packed with a silky floss sur- 
rounding the seeds. This floss is used in upholstery for the stuffing 
of pillows, etc. ; the fibre being of too short a staple to be spun. The 
seeds of the Kapok Tree yield a bright red, clear oil. and are also 
eaten, while the young fruits are said to be used in cookery. The 
seeds of this tree are made into cakes by the Hindus and used as 
fodder for their cattle. 

In Honolulu the tree is quite often met with ; nice specimens may 
be seen in the grounds of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry, the 
Queen's Hospital grounds, Mrs. Foster's premises, and around the 
Capitol building. It can always be recognized by its columnar trunk 
and horizontal branches. It was introduced into the Island in the 
early days, probably by Dr. William Hillebrand. 

Adanscnia digitata L. 

Plates LVIII and LIX. 

Baobab Tree, Bottle Tree, Monkey Bread, Sour Gourd. 

The Bottle Tree, or Monkey Bread Tree, known in Honolulu 
mainly by these names, is one of the largest and longest lived trees 
in the world. Its trunk reaches larger dimensions than that of any 
other known tree, often having a diameter of more than thirty feet. 
It is a native of the West Coast of Africa, where trees several thou- 
sand years old can be found on the tree-grass plains, grassy plains 
with trees scattered great distances apart. It forms, with an Acacia, 
the sole tree growth on the plains of Uganda. Its roots penetrate 
deeply into the ground, while the fleshy trunk, which possesses little 
woody substance, is an excellent water reservoir. The Baobab be- 

Plate LIX. 

Adansonia digitata Linn. 
Baobab or Bottle Tree in the Queen's Hospital grounds. 

Bombaceae. 147 

comes bare during the dry season and in the rainy season brings 
forth leaves and flowers, the latter very large and usually six inches 
in diameter. The specific name, digitata, refers to the five-fingered 
leaves ( digit us=i\nger) . It has been introduced into a great many 
tropical countries, especially into India, where it is plentiful on the 
coasts cf Bombay and Madras. In Honolulu there are only a few- 
trees ; the most noteworthy are the one growing in the grounds of the 
Board of Agriculture and Forestry and another (here figured) in 
the Queen's Hospital grounds near the Vineyard Street entrance. 

In Africa it extends from the Senegal to Abyssinia. It has been 
termed "the oldest organic monument of our planet." Adanson, a 
famous French traveler who lived in Senegal from 1749 to 1754, 
and after whom the tree is named, calculated that a tree thirty feet 
in diameter was over five thousand years of age. He saw trees five 
to six feet in diameter, on the barks of which were cut European 
names, one dated in the fourteenth and another in the fifteenth 

When the bark is bruised it exudes a large quantity of white, 
semifluid, odorless and tasteless gum. The bark yields a strong and 
useful fibre, and the tree has on that account been urged for culti- 
vation. In Senegal it is made into rope and even woven into cloth 
by negroes, who also make canoes from the very soft wood. Small 
trees yield finer fibre than old ones. The fibre is exported and manu- 
factured into paper especially suitable for bank notes. The leaves, 
bark, and especially the fruit, abound in mucilage. The pulp of the 
fruit has a pleasant, cool taste, and is a good refrigerant in fever. 
The negroes powder the dry leaves, which the)- call lalo, and use 
for excessive perspiration. The fruit varies in size and shape. It 
often reaches a length of more than twelve inches and a diameter 
of three to four inches, but occasionally has the shape of a gourd. It 
contains many brown seeds, is slightly acid, and produces a rather 
pleasant drink. The negroes eat the fruits. Owing to the softness 
of the wood of the Baobab, the trees are often hollowed out by the 
natives of Africa and used for dwelling houses; one of the trees 
has been found sufficiently large to accommodate about thirty people. 
The natives employ the ashes of the fruits and bark, boiled in oil, 
as soap. 

The genus Adansonia contains three species, the one discussed 
here, one peculiar to Madagascar, and a third known only from 
North Australia, where it is called Sour-Cucumber Tree, on account 
of its fruits. 

Plate LX. 

Sterculia urens Roxb. 
Fruiting specimen. 

Sterculiaceae. 149 


Cacao Family. 

Besides the species treated below, mention must be made of the 
Cacao, or Chocolate Tree, Theobroma cacao L., a native of tropical 
America and cultivated in Honolulu but not commercially since the 
early fifties. Specimens occur at Ahuimanu Ranch on Oahu, as 
well as in Dr. Hillebrand's garden on Nuuanu Avenue. 

A species of Pterospermiun is also in cultivation in Honolulu, 
but only in Mrs. Foster's grounds. One young seedling has been 
planted on the College of Hawaii Campus. It has a rather hand- 
some foliage which is white underneath. The tree in Mrs. Foster's 
grounds was cut down, but young ones have come up again, as well 
as shoots from the old trunk. As there are no flowers or fruits 
available, the species cannot be definitely determined, but will prob- 
ably prove to be Pterospermum suberifolium Lam., a native of In- 
dia. It was introduced by Dr. Hillebrand. 

Sterculia urens Roxb. 
Plates LX and LXI. 

Sterculia urens is a large deciduous tree, with smooth bark of a 
whitish or greenish-gray color, which exfoliates in large, thin, ir- 
regular scales, the outer bark is papery, the inner fibrous. The trunk 
is erect and soft-wooded. Its branches are wide spreading and 
marked with large scars. The leaves are terminal and palmately 
five-lobed, heart-shaped at the base, almost smooth above and tomen- 
tose underneath. The flowers are borne in crowded, erect, some- 
what pyramidal, panicles, and are densely clothed with glandular 
hair. The fruit consists of four to five radiating, thick, leathery 
carpels, about three inches long, which are red at maturity and cov- 
ered outside with stiff, stinging hairs; each carpel contains three to 
six seeds of a dark brown color. 

Sterculia urens is a native of both Indies and also Ceylon, occur- 
ring mainly in the northwestern part of India and Assam to Bur- 
mah. It yields a gum which is completely soluble in water, forms 
a colorless solution, and is equal to tragacanth as an emulsifying 
agent. It is used medicinally as a substitute for tragacanth in throat 
affections in its native home. 

The bark yields a good fibre which is used in rope-making. The 
seeds possess cathartic properties but are often eaten by the poorer 

Sterculiaceae. 151 

natives of India; sometimes they are ground and made into a sort 
of coffee. 

Sterculia urens has been planted quite frequently in Honolulu 
where space permitted it. The finest specimen may be seen in the 
grounds of St. Louis College, others in Thomas Square, facing Bere- 
tania Street and also in private grounds on Emma Street. 

Sterculia foetida Linn. 

Sterculia foetida is also a large deciduous tree, with a tall, stout 
trunk and horizontal, whorled branches; the leaves are crowded at 
their ends, are digitate, consisting of seven to nine elliptical-lanceolate 
leaflets. The flowers are arranged in raceme-like panicles six to 
twelve inches long; they are red and yellow or dull purple and have 
a most offensive odor which attracts carrion flies, which often deposit 
their eggs on them. The fruit consists of scarlet woody follicles, 
nearly glabrous outside but fibrous inside, containing ten to iifteen 
seeds in each. It is of much wider distribution than Sterculia linns, 
extending from western and southern India to Burmah, East tropi- 
cal Africa, the Moluccas, and North Australia. Like the foregoing 
species, it exudes a gum resembling tragacanth. The leaves are used 
medicinally ; the seeds are oily, containing about forty per cent of 
a fixed thick, pale yellow oil ; they are eaten by the natives of the 
various countries in which this species is indigenous, but when swal- 
lowed incautiously bring on nausea and vertigo. 

Occasionally the wood is used for house building and in the con- 
struction of masts and canoes. In Honolulu it is less commonlv 
planted than Sterculia urens, probably on account of the offensive 
smell of its flowers. Trees of this species may be found in Moanalua 
Gardens, opposite the Pleasanton Hotel on Punahou Street, and 
probably elsewhere. It is of more recent introduction than the pre- 
ceding species. 

Brachychiton acerifolium F. v. M. 

Flame Tree. 

Plate LXII. 

The Flame Tree is quite glabrous; its leaves are long petioled, 
deeply five to seven lobed, the lobes oblong to lanceolate often sinuate, 
the whole leaf eight or ten inches in diameter. The rich red flowers 
are arranged in loose axillary racemes or panicles. The follicles are 

Plate LXII. 

Brachychiton acerifolium F. v. Muell. 

Australian Flame Tree. 
Flowering specimen. 

Sterculiaceae. 153 

large, on long stalks, and black when mature. The tree grows to 
large dimensions. It is a native of New South Wales, but can be 
found in cultivation in both tropical and subtropical countries. The 
wood is occasionally used for timber. Honolulu has only a tew speci- 
mens, the best ones occurring in the grounds of the Board of Agri- 
culture and Forestry on King and Keeaumoku Streets. Mention 
must be made of Heritiera littoralis Dryand, of which there are only 
about two trees in the Territory, one a straggly looking specimen in 
St. Louis College grounds near the entrance. It is a medium-sized 
tree with dark red heartwood which is very hard and has reddish 
medullary rays. The leaves are leathery, elliptical-oblong and en- 
tire. The flowering panicles are shorter than the leaves, the flowers 
very small. The ripe carpels, one to three, are woody, glabrous, 
shining, and have a strong sharp keel. It is a tropical seashore tree 
and is distributed from Burmah to the Andaman Islands, Cevlon, 
the tropics of the old world and Australia. The wood is used for 
houseposts and rafters and also for firewood. It has received the 
name Looking-Glass Tree by Europeans, owing to the dense silverv 
hairs which cover the under surface of the leaves. 

Brachychiton discolor F. v. Muell. 
Plate LXIII. 

This peculiar species of the genus Brachychiton is ordinarily a 
tall tree with the young shoots tomentose. The leaves are broadly 
cordate, shortly pointed at the apex, angular or shortly and irregu- 
larly rive or seven lobed, glabrous above, whitish underneath, with a 
close tomentum, and are about four to six inches in diameter. The 
flowers are borne clustered in the axils of the upper leaves. The 
calyx is about one and a half inches long, bell-shaped and colored 
(the petals being wanting), tomentose inside and out, and is divided 
to the middle into broad lobes with induplicate margins. The fruit 
consists of follicles which are woody in this species, about four to 
six inches long, pointed, and are densely rusty-tomentose outside. 

This species, which has no common name, is a native of Australia, 
occurring in the northern part of that continent, in Queensland and 
New South Wales. In Honolulu there is only a single specimen ; it 
was introduced by the late Mr. Jaeger, in whose premises it grows. 
It flowers in the late fall. 

Plate LXIII. 

Brachychiton discolor F. v. Muell. 
Flowering and fruiting specimen. 

Sterculiaceae. 1 S5 

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. 


The genus Guazuma possesses four species, of which the one here 
cited is the most common, all are natives of Central and South 

The Guazima, as the tree is called throughout the Antilles, 
reaches a height of forty feet and has a rather straight trunk. The 
leaves are simple, (undivided), serrate, and stellate hairy, especially on 
the under side. The flowers are small and rather insignificant ; the 
fruit is woody and covered with stout, short spines. It is undoubtedly 
a native of the West Indies, but has long been in cultivation in the 
warmer parts of India and Ceylon. In Honolulu there seem to be 
only a few trees of this species; one grows in the Government Nur- 
sery grounds on King Street, and another in Mrs. M. E. Foster's 

The wood of the Bastard Cedar is rather loose grained, of a 
brownish color, streaked, and somewhat coarsely fibrous. It is 
occasionally employed in India for furniture, panels of carriages, 
and packing cases. The young luxuriant branches yield a fibre of 
considerable strength, useful for rope-making. 

The tree has medicinal properties which have been employed in 
Alartinque. The infusion of the old bark is esteemed 1 as useful in 
diseases of the chest. The inner bark is cut into small pieces, boiled 
in water, and strained when cool, the dose is from two to three 
fluid ounces. In the West Indies a similar decoction is used as a 
remedy for Elephantiasis. 

It is also stated that the glutinous decoction of the inner bark is 
employed in the West Indies for clarifying sugar, while the wood 
is used as fuel and the light charcoal in the manufacture of powder. 

In Southern India the tree has been planted mainly in avenues, 
for which it seems admirably adapted. 

Kleinhofia hospita L. 

Plate LXIV. 

The genus Kleinhofia consists of a single species, which is a 
handsome tree twenty-five to forty-five feet or more in height. The 
leaves are broadly ovate, pointed, five to seven nerved, heart-shaped 
at the base, about four inches each way, with leaf stalks half as long. 
The flowering panicles are ample and large and bear small pink- or 
rose-colored flowers; the capsule is about an inch long, inflated, pear- 

Plate LXIV. 

Kleinhofia hospita L. 
Flowering and fruiting specimen. 

Sterculiaceae-Guttiferae-Bixaceae. 157 

shaped, thin, papery, and is divided into rive valves, each valve con- 
taining a single seed. 

This rather handsome tree is a native of the Eastern and West- 
ern Peninsulas of India and is distributed over Malacca, Formosa, 
Singapore, Ceylon, Java, the Philippines, and Eastern Africa. It 
flowers from August to November. 

In Honolulu there are only two mature specimens, one on the 
corner of Beretania and Union Streets, the other, a very tall tree, on 
King Street near the Y. W. C. A. Homestead. 

It thrives well in low, moist countries and is well suited for 
planting along avenues. It has been used for this purpose in Cal- 
cutta and in the Bombay Presidency. The old timber of this species 
is much valued in Java, though no information is available as to its 
uses. Seemann reports this tree as indigenous in Fiji on Vanua Levu, 
where it is known to the natives as Marnakara. 


Maxgosteex Family. 

Species under cultivation belonging to this family are as fol- 
lows: Garcinia mango stana L., the Mangosteen, a single tree on 
the Island of Kauai, and one other on Alaui are the only ones in the 
Territory. Garcinia Xanthochymus Hook, f., a moderate-sized tree 
of pyramidal stature, with dark green foliage and yellow fruits, is 
quite commonly planted. It was first introduced by Air. Albert 
Jaeger. It is a native of India, Burmah and the Andaman Islands. 

CalophyUuin inophyllum L., the true Kaniani, is also common. It 
is indigenous in these islands and is therefore treated in the writer's 
book on the "Indigenous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands." Cratoxylon 
polyanthum Korth. var. ligustrinum Bl. a glabrous aromatic shrub a 
native of tropical Asia is under cultivation in Honolulu. 1 he writer 
knows of a single specimen in the Queen's Hospital grounds near the 
Vineyard Street entrance. 


The family Bixaceae consists of a single genus with a single 
species, which is sparingly cultivated in Honolulu. The very closely 
related family Cochlospermaceae, once classed with the Bixaceae, has 
a single species represented of the genus Cochlospermam. 

Plate LXV. 

Cochlospermum balicum Boei'l. 

Bixaceae-Flacourtiaceae. 159 

Bixa crellana Linn. 

The Anatto is a small tree or shrub of handsome appearanc?. 
The leaves are ovate, cordate, and have a pointed apex. The flowers 
are white or pink, quite numerous, and are followed by burr-like 
ovoid capsules, at first green but later changing to a deep red, and 
are covered with slender, soft spines. The seeds are covered with 
an arrillus of a bright orange-red color, which constitutes the Anatto 
of commerce. 

It is a native of tropical America, but is now widely distributed 
in the tropics of the world. The arrillus is often removed from the 
seeds while fresh and compacted into cakes, in which form it is ex- 
ported into the United States for manufacture into butter color. 
Over seven hundred thousand pounds were annually imported, 
valued above fifty-four thousand dollars, but lately aniline dyes have 
supplanted it. Only a few specimens, mostly shrubbv in appear- 
ance, may be found in Honolulu, especially on Nuuanu Avenue in 
private grounds. 

Cochlospermum Balicum Boerl. 
Plate LXV. 

This rather handsome species here illustrated is a native of the 
East Indies and is under cultivation in Java, where the writer saw 
it in the Botanic Gardens of Buitenzorg. Its large, handsome, bright 
yellow flowers give it a very ornamental aspect. The leaves are. 
however, subject to insect attacks and have a dilapidated appearance. 

It is probably related to C. hibtscoides and C. vitifolium. Only 
a single tree is at present under cultivation in Honolulu, in Mr. 
G. P. Wilder's grounds. 


Flacourtia Family. 

This family, which consists of about 550 species, is distributed 
over most tropical countries and is represented in Honolulu by two 
introduced species belonging to the genus Flacourtia, Flacourtia 
sepiaria and Fl. Jangomas, the latter known as Fl. Cataphracta 
Roxb., which name is a synonym. Both species have edible fruits? 
which are of the size and color of a cherry. They may be found in 
Mrs. M. E. Foster's premises. Of the latter species one tree occurs 
also on the Old Plantation grounds on King Street. 

Pangium cdulc Reinw., a fruit tree, has also been introduced. 

160 Cactaceae-Lythraceae. 


Cactus Family. 

While this family does not come within the scope of this work, 
mention must he made of Cert us triangularis (Linn.) Haw., the 
Night-blooming Cereus, a native of Mexico, remarkable for its large 
white flowers and red, quite palatable fruits. Cultivated extensively 
in the islands, the finest specimens may be seen on the stone wall en- 
closing the Punahou Campus. It may not be out of place to mention 
Carica papaya L.. the Papaya, which, next to the Pineapple, is the 
most extensively cultivated fruit in the Territory. The first Papaya 
tree in these Islands was probably one planted by Mr. G. Wundenberg 
at Hanalei in 1848. 


Henna Family. 

This rather large family is represented in these Islands by sev- 
eral species, two of which are of striking beauty and are discussed in 
the last two chapters. 

Lawscnia inermis L. 

The Henna is an erect, much branched shrub, ten to eighteen 
feet in height; the leaves are oblong-elliptical, pointed, and about an 
inch or more long; the flowering panicle is ten to twelve inches long 
and its lower branches are subtended by leaves; the flowers are very 
fragrant, rather small, and usually straw-yellow; the fruit is a de- 
pressed globose capsule a few lines in diameter. 

Henna is commonly cultivated for its fragrant flowers in many 
tropical countries; it is a native of Africa and India, but may now 
be found well distributed over the tropics. It is the only species of 
the genus Lawsonia; the latter having been named in honor of Dr. 
J. Lawson, a Scotch friend of Linnaeus. 

It is cultivated in many provinces of India for the sake of its 
dye and fragrant flowers, and partly as a hedge plant. The natives 
of India employ a decoction of the leaves in dyeing cloth, the color 
produced being a shade of yellow or reddish-brown, which is known 
as M'dagiri. The most important use of Hi una in India is as an 
article of toilet; the leaves being used for staining the fingers, nails. 
hands and feet, and for dveing the hair. The custom is a very old 

Lythraceae. lbl 

one among the Mohammedan population of the world, dating back 
to the earliest times, as is shown by ancient mummies. The seeds 
yield a little known oil, while the flowers are used in perfumery and 
embalming. The ancient Egyptians used the flowers to perfume the 
oils and ointments used in embalming. 

Medicinally the Henna has been employed from the remotest 
times. The Egyptians used it as an astringent ; Persian writers des- 
cribe the leaves as a valuable external application in headaches. If 
applied to the hair and nails they have the reputation of promoting 
healthy growth. 

The only chemical substance of medicinal value known to be 
contained in Henna is an astringent principle which has been termed 
H ennotannic Acid. 

Only very few Henna shrubs can be found in Honolulu as it is 
not cultivated or much known by the people of these Islands. A 
handsome Henna plant can be seen in the Government Nursery 
grounds on King Street. It is well adapted for hedge planting and 
would be worthy of cultivation. 

Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. 
Plate LXVI. 

Lagerstroemia speciosa is a medium to large-sized tree reaching 
often a height of sixty feet, but flowers when a mere shrub six feet 
in height. The leaves are leathery, oblong, and obtuse or shortly 
pointed. The large flowering panicle is terminal, and up to a foot 
and a half in length. The flowers are lilac-purple and of exquisite 
beauty. The capsules are obovoid or ellipsoidal and contain many 
seeds, which are winged at the apex. 

This large deciduous tree is a native of Eastern Bengal, Assam 
and Burmah, ranging as far as Australia. 

Owing to its large panicles of beautiful lilac flowers it is now 
cultivated in many tropical countries, but curiously enough only 
sparingly in Honolulu. The finest specimen may be found in Dr. 
W. Hillebrand's garden on Nuuanu Avenue, where it flowers during 
the fall, producing afterward an abundance of capsules. 

The wood is light red in color, and is one of the most valuable 
timbers of India and Burmah, where it is valued next to Teak. It 
is used in the construction of ships, boats and canoes, and also for 
building purposes. It is very durable under water but decays under 
ground. The root is astringent, while the seeds are narcotic and 
the leaves are said to be purgative. 

Plate LXVI. 

Lagerstroemia speciosa (L. ) Pers. 
A species of Crape Myrtle; flowering branch. 

Lythraceae-Lecythidaceae. 163 

Another very handsome species is hag erst roc una indica Linn., 
the Crape Myrtle. It is, however, not a tree, but a shrub twelve 
to fifteen feet in height, with slender, four-angled branches, which 
are narrowly winged ; the leaves are much smaller than in the fore- 
going species. The flowers are very showy, pink or purplish and are 
arranged in small terminal panicles. The capsule is also smaller. 

The Crape Myrlte is a native of China, but has been widely cul- 
tivated. In Honolulu it is much more common than the foregoing 
species, but still not plentiful. Both species certainly deserve to be 
more generally cultivated. It is a profuse bloomer and is most 
easily cultivated from seed as well as cuttings. It blossoms during 
a period of two or three months beginning usually in June. Speci- 
mens may be seen on Nuuanu Street, also on Keeaumoku Street, and 
elsewhere. It was named in honor of Magnus v. Lagerstroem 
(1696-1759), a friend of Linnaeus. 

Of the Punicaceae or Pomegranate family, which consists of a 
single genus with two species, only the common Pomegranate, Pun'ica 
granatum L., is under cultivation. It is a native of eastern sub- 
tropical Asia. 


Barringtonia Family. 

Formerly the members of this family were classed with the 
Myrtaceae, with which it has, however, little in common. It is 
much closer to the Mangrove Family ( Rhizophoraceae ) , through Bar- 
ringtonia on one side and to the Blattiaceae through the genus Foeti- 
dia on the other. 

The genus Barringtonia only is represented by two species. 

Barringtonia asiatica (L.) Km-z. 

(Syn. Barringtonia speciosa Forst. ) 

Plate LXVII. 

The Barringtonia asiatica is a large, handsome tree with thick, 
leathery, glossy, bright green wedge-shaped leaves which are glab- 
rous; the flowers are quite conspicuous, having four white petals and 
numerous crimson-tipped stamens, resembling a brush ; the fruit has 
the shape of a four-sided pyramid, is quite large and consists, when 
dry, of a solid fibrous case, which is smooth outside and contains one 
seed. This fibrous case enables the fruits to float, and as it is quite 
thick and solid, it protects the seed from coming into contact with 
salt water, thus keeping its germinating power from being destroyed. 

Plate LXVII. 

Barringtonia asiatica (L.) Kurz. 
Fruiting branch. 

Lecythidaceae-Combretaceae. 165 

The tree is decidedly a beach tree and forms extensive beach 
forests in some of the Pacific islands. It depends on the ocean cur- 
rent for its dispersal, hence its wide distribution. It is a native of the 
Andaman Islands, Singapore, Ceylon. Guam, Samoa, the Philippines 
and other countries bordering on the Pacific, but not of Hawaii. 

In the Moluccas a lamp-oil is expressed from the seeds, while a 
drug is prepared from the bark; the active principle appears to be a 
volatile oil combined with resin ; the drug is a narcotic and is used 
by the natives of the various countries above-mentioned in stupefying 
fish. The dry fruits are also gathered by the natives and used as 
fishing floats, in place of cork. There are quite a number of trees 
planted about Honolulu, the largest occurring in Mrs. Foster's 
grounds on Nuuanu Avenue. A few have been planted on Beretania 
Street and a fine specimen may be seen in the grounds of the Uni- 
versity Club. 

Another species of Barringtonia under cultivation is B. racemosa 
Roxb., a smaller tree, with long drooping racemes of white or pink 
flowers. The single specimen in Honolulu was planted by Dr. 
W. Hillebrand on his premises. This species is a native of India, 
Ceylon and Polynesia, flourishing on open lowlands near the sea. 


Terminally Family. 

The Terminalia family comprises about 250 species, with the 
following in cultivation in Honolulu. 

Terminalia catappa L. 

Umbrella Tree, False Kamaxi, Ixdiax Almoxd. 

Plate LXVIII. 

The so-called Kamani is a large tree, which sometimes reaches a 
height of seventy-five feet. The branches are long and spreading, 
horizontal, or nearly so. In its young state the branches are some- 
what turned upward, resembling an inverted umbrella, whence the 
name. The leaves are large, obovate, shining, and taper below to 
a narrow and cordate base, and finally into a short petiole. The 
small white flowers are arranged in spikes, the latter are axillary, 
simple and up to seven inches in length. The fruit is one-seeded, 
compressed, ellipsoidal in outline, prominently two-ridged, and up 
to two inches or more in length. The Umbrella or Kamani Tree 

Combretaceae-Myrtaceae. 167 

is of wide distribution, occurring in the Philippines and extending to 
India and Malay. It was introduced into these Islands many decades 
ago and is now very commonly planted as a shade tree. In the 
autumn the leaves turn red and drop off, but are soon followed by 
the bright green, shining young foliage. It is decidedly a tree of 
the seashore and grows very rapidly in good, light, sandy soil. 

The tree yields a gum which is known in the West Indies as 
almond gum. The bark and leaves are astringent and contain tannin 
up to 9 per cent. The kernels yield a valuable oil which resembles 
almond oil in flavor and odor, and does not become rancid so readily 
as the true almond oil. The kernel may also be eaten ; it is quite 
palatable and fairly nutritious. 

The wood is reddish and rather soft, and may be used for posts. 

Terminalia Chebula Retz. 
Black Myrobalan. 

The Black Myrobalan is a large deciduous tree, abundant in 
Northern India. It is a very polymorphic species, the most variable 
part being the fruit. In India the tree ascends to an elevation of 
5000 feet in the sub-Himalayan tracts. The dried fruit forms the 
myrobalan of commerce and is considered one of the most valuable 
tanning materials in India. There is only a single tree in Honolulu, 
on the premises of 1814 Ahuula Street. 

Quite a number of other species of Terminalia have been intro- 
duced, as for example, Terminalia sumatrana, T . arborea, and others. 
A vine belonging to the genus Quisqualis, Q. indica L., is also in 
cultivation, but rather rare. 


Myrtle Family. 

This rather large family consists of about 3000 species and is 
represented in the Islands by quite a large number of species, mostly 
fruit trees rather than ornamental trees. As the former have already 
been treated to some extent by Mr. G. P. Wilder, they are simply 
mentioned here. Of the genus Eucalyptus about 80 species are culti- 
vated, but mostly in the uplands, and as they are not exactly of 
ornamental value, they are here omitted. The most common and now 
naturalized member of this family in the Islands is the Guava, Psid- 
ium Guayava L., a native of Mexico. Its introduction is to be ac- 
credited to Don Marin, a Spaniard who came to the Islands in 

168 Myrtaceae-Araliaceae. 

1791. Numerous Eugenias are also in cultivation, as Eugenia Jam- 
bolana Lam., E. Jambos L., E. brasiliensis Lam., E. unifiora L., E. 
malaccensis L. ; several other species of Psidium, as P. cattleyanum 
Sab., and the several forms of P. Guayava, as pyriferum and pomi- 

Myrtus communis L., the common Myrtle, may also be found, 
specimens occurring at Kaimuki near 10th Avenue and Waialae 

The most commonly planted Eucalypti are: E. globulus, E. ro- 
busta, E. calophylla and E. citriodora. The writer would refer any- 
one especially interested in Eucalyptus to a Bulletin on the Eucalyptus 
Culture in Hawaii, by Louis Margolin, published by the Board of 
Agriculture and Forestry. It treats mainly of the commercial pos- 
sibilities of a few species. The determinations made by Margolin 
are, however, not reliable. 

Syncarpia glomulifera (Sm.), known as S. laurifolia, the latter 
name a synonym, is also under cultivation ; but on the highlands only. 
It is a native of New South Wales. Species of Melaleuca are also 
grown, the most noteworthy being M. leucadendron L., the Cajeput 
Tree. The Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. is an evergreen tree, 
native of the West Indies. Specimens are also in cultivation in Hono- 


Aralia Family. 

The Aralia family is composed of 54 genera and 650 species, with 
the following cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands: 

Nothopanax Guilfoylei (C. et M.) Merrill 

Nothopanax Guilfoylei, which, unhappily, has no common name, 
is an erect shrub with straight ascending branches, and reaches a 
height of twelve feet or more. The leaves are pinnate, having from 
five to seven large ovate leaflets, with the margins distantly but 
prominently and sharply serrate; the apex is rounded, the base some- 
what uneven, the margins white, and the upper leaf surface also fre- 
quently blotched with white. 

This species has never flowered in Honolulu, where it is one 
of the most common hedge plants. It is a native of Polynesia, but 
is now widely cultivated. It grows very easily from cuttings and is 
one of the most satisfactory and clean hedge plants, as it is not 
at all attacked by insects. 

Araliaceae. 169 

Ncthopanax fruticosum (L.) Miq. 

Nothopanax fruticosum , less commonly seen than the foregoing 
species, is a shrub three to seven feet in height with decompound 
three pinnate leaves. The leaflets and ultimate segments are usually 
very diverse in form, are pointed and sharply spinulously toothed 
to even lobed ; they are of a uniform yellowish-green color. The in- 
florescense is terminal, the flowers are numerous, and arranged in 
umbels. It is a very variable species and flowers commonly in Hono- 
lulu. It is probably a native of Polynesia. 

In Honolulu it is rarely or never planted as a hedge, and when 
planted singly assumes the form of a large globose bush. Fine speci- 
mens may be seen in the Pleasanton Hotel grounds. 

Other species belonging to this genus are Nothopanax cochleatum 
(Lam.) Miq., an erect shrub up to nine feet or more in height with 
simple suborbicular, somewhat concave saucer-like leaves. It is 
very common in Guam and the Philippines, but rare in Honolulu. 
Specimens occur on the premises of Mr. G. P. Wilder and the Col- 
lege of Hawaii grounds. 

Nothopanax ornatum, probably also A. pinnatum, and on or two 
varieties of K. fruticosum, as variety victoriae Hort., are also in 
cultivation but not at all common. 

Brassaia actinophylla Em 11. 
Plate LXIX. 

Brassaia actinophylla is a handsome tree which attains a height 
of forty feet. The leaves are composed of seven to sixteen leaflets, 
which are stalked, oblong or obovate-oblong in outline, leathery, and 
entire. The flowers are arranged in little dense heads along the 
stout rhachis of racemes several feet in length, and of which there 
are often several together at the end of the branch. The inflorescence 
is red, and the fruits contain about twelve one-seeded laterally com- 
pressed pyrenes, and are dark purplish-black in color. 

The genus Brassaia consists of this single species, which is pe- 
culiar to Australia. It is extensively cultivated in Honolulu and 
grows from cuttings as well as from seed. It makes an admirable 
pot-plant in its young state and is quite ornamental as a tree. It is 
immune to insect attacks, and when in flower is quite a showy object. 

Plate LXIX. 

Brassaia actinophylla F. v. Muell. 
On the Kaahumanu School grounds, Beretania Street. 

Myrsinaceae. 171 


Ardisia Family. 

The Ardisia family possesses 33 genera and nearly 1100 species; 
the genus Ardisia is only represented by two cultivated species. 

Ardisia humilis Vahl. 

Ardisia humilis is a shrub six to ten feet in height, with thick, 
fleshy glabrous branches ; the leaves are obovate oblong, acute at the 
base and rounded at the apex, thick, fleshy and smooth on both sides, 
and are on very short leaf stalks. The inflorescence is glabrous, 
drooping and shorter than the leaves. The flowers are pinkish- 
purple with small black dots dispersed over the surface of the petals 
and sepals ; the berry is subglobose and dark purple. 

This species is a native of the East Indies, extending over Bur- 
mah to Southern China, the Philippines and neighboring islands. It 
is cultivated on account of its pretty purplish flowers, and clean, 
glossy leaves. In Honolulu specimens occur in Mrs. M. E. Foster's 
premises. Another species, A. solanacea Roxb., a native of India 
(in the tropical regions of the East Himalayas), is perhaps identical 
with the foregoing species, with which it is united by several 
authors, save C. Mez, who considers it a separate species in his mono- 
graph on the Myrsinaceae. It does in fact differ from A. humilis in 
the petals, which are obtuse and not acuminate, and in the anthers, 
which are smooth and not rugose and dotted as in A. humilis. The 
leaves are obovate-oblong, acute and not obtuse at the apex. 

Fine specimens of this species may be found in the grounds of the 
Government Nursery on King Street, and in Mrs. M. E. Foster's 

The family Plumhaginaceac is represented by the blue-flowered 
Plumbago auriculata Lam., commonly known as P. capensis Thunb., 
which is a synonym. It is a native of South Africa, but now com- 
monly cultivated. 

1/2 Sapotaceae-Oleaceae. 


Guttapercha Family. 

The Sapotaceae include quite a number of fruit trees, some of 
which are cultivated in the Islands, as for example, Achras sapota L., 
the Chico of Mexico, a species of Bumelia, Chrysophyllum Cainito 

L. the Star-apple, and Chrysophyllum monopyrenum S\v. the so- 
called Damascene Plum. Of interest here is Mimusops elengi L., 

a tree reaching a height of forty-five feet. The leaves are green, 
shining, elliptic and glabrous; the flowers are axillary, solitary, in 
pairs or fascicled and fragrant; the corolla is white. The fruit is 
ovoid, about an inch or less long, one- or rarely two-seeded. It is 
occasionally cultivated and specimens may be seen in the Government 
Nursery, in the Hilo court yard and elsewhere. It is a native of 
India, where it is cultivated. It yields a gum known as Aladras 
gum, while the fruits are used medicinally in diseases of the gums and 
teeth. A volatile oil is distilled from the flowers, while a fixed oil 
is obtained from the seeds by compression which is used for culinary 
purposes and is also burned in lamps. It is supposed to be sacred to 
the Mohammedans of southern India. 

The Ebenaceae or Ebony family is represented by only a single 
species, belonging to the genus Diospyros, D. Ebenaster Retz, which 
produces a large, globose, edible fruit, nearly black when ripe. The 
fruit flesh is brownish. 

It is a native of Mexico and is cultivated on the Island of Oahu 
only on the windward side, below the Pali. It has been erroneously 
recorded as Diospyros decandra by G. P. Wilder. 


Olive Family. 

Besides the species treated below, there are represented in Hawaii 
the true Olive, Olca europea L.. which rarely bears seed ; Osmanthus 
fragrans Lour., a small shrub or tree whose native home is East 
India, and Fraxinus floribunda Wall, introduced bv the writer from 
the Eastern Himalaya, where it is a large tree. Specimens have 
been planted out in upper Makiki Valley. Another species of Fiaxi- 
nus grows on Union Street, back of the Pacific Club. This latter 
Ash tree belongs to the section Fraxinaster, but as only a single male 
tree is in cultivation, the species has not been definitely determined. 

Noronhia emarginata Toir., the only species of the genus Noron- 
hia, a native of Madagascar and Timor, is cultivated in Honolulu. 

Oleaceae-Loganiaceae. 173 

It produces edible fruits. A single tree grows in the Government 
Nursery grounds. The Japanese privet, Ligustrum ovalifolium 
Hassk., is also in cultivation besides Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. ) 
Roth., the Star Jasmin, trained over fences and pergolas; it is in 
blossom all the year round. 

Linociera intermedia Wight, 
var. Roxburghii C. B. Clark 

The variety Roxburghii of Linociera intermedia, C. B. Clark, 
also known as Olea paniculata Roxb., is a medium - sized tree 
with papery leaves six and a half by two and a half inches, which 
are on petioles of a half to one inch. The flowering panicle varies 
from two to five inches in length, and has compressed branches. The 
flowers are white and consist of four petals and two elliptical, shorter 
stamens. The fruit is of the shape of an olive, glaucous and about 
half an inch or less long. 

This species is a native of India, where it occurs in the Nilgherry 
hills up to an elevation of 6000 feet. There are very few trees of 
this species in Honolulu ; one is in Mrs. Jaeger's premises. There is 
also a specimen in Hilo. The wood is pale brown, hard, close 
grained and durable, and is valued in the manufacture of agricultural 


Strychnine Family. 
Besides the following species there is in cultivation a species of 
Fagraea with long tubular, white, fragrant flowers. A single tree 
grows at the Maunwili Ranch on the windward side of Oahu. 

Strychnos nux-vomica L. 
The Nux-vomica or Strychnine Tree. 

The Strychnine Tree, which attains the height of forty feet, is 
a native of India, and is found throughout tropical India, being rare 
in Bengal but very common in the Madras Presidency and Tennas- 
serim. It can be found up to an altitude of 4000 feet. The leaves 
are three and one-half by two inches, ovate and five-nerved, are 
glabrous, and have short leaf stalks. The floral cymes are terminal, 
short stalked and bear many flowers; the fruit resembles very much 
a Chinese orange or Mandarin, being of the same color when ripe. 
It is one and one-half inches in diameter, and contains many white, 

174 Loganiaceae. 

flat, disc-shaped seeds. The seeds, from which is produced the 
strychnine of commerce, yield also a dye used for producing light 
brown shades on cotton. 

Nux-vomica entered into European medicine about the middle of 
the sixteenth century and was first accurately described by Valerius 
Cordus. About 1640 it was used chiefly for poisoning cats, dogs, 
crows and ravens, and has only been employed medicinally, as a nerve 
tonic, since the beginning of the nineteenth century. The alkaloid 
strychnine is extracted from the seeds mainly, but this substance seems 
to exist also in the wood and root of the tree, and even plants grow- 
ing parasitically on it absorb and contain these same alkaloid pro'M r- 
ties, mainly in their leaves. The strychnine preparations are mainly 
used in nervous disorders as a tonic and stimulant, for example, in 
phthysis as a respiratory stimulant and in chronic constipation from 
weakness of the bowels. 

The gathered seeds are freed of the pulp, washed and dried and 
are then ready for export. The seeds contain two alkaloids — strych- 
nine and brucine — whose characters are amply described in works 
on materia medica. 

The pulp of the fruit, though also containing strychnine, is eagerly 
devoured by birds without apparent harm. In the Nilgherry hills in 
India the native tribes use the seeds as a fish poison. 

The wood is brownish-gray, rather hard and close grained, but 
splits in seasoning; in Burmah it is used for carts and agricultural 
implements as well as for cabinet work. 

In Honolulu there are only a very few trees, one in the Govern- 
ment Nursery grounds and a few in Mrs. Foster's premises on 
Nuuanu Avenue, planted by Dr. W. Hillebrand, evidently in the 
early seventies if not earlier. They bear an abundance of fruit in 
the month of March. 

Apocynaceae. 175 

Plumiera Family. 

The Plumiera or Plumeria family possesses about 1300 species, 
which are distributed in 32 genera. The following are representa- 
tives of nine genera. 

Mention may be made of several vines and a small perennial, as 
for example, two yellow-flowering species of Allamanda, A. Hender- 
sonii Bull, and J. cat liar tica L. The former species differs from the 
latter in having a much larger corolla, nearly five inches long, 
twice the length of that of A . cathartica. Both are subscandent shrubs. 

Trachelospermum divaricatum (Thbg. ) K. Sch., commonly 
known as Rhynchospermum jasminoides Lindl., is also cultivated, 
specimens occurring in Mrs. M. E. Foster's premises. 

Lochnera rosea (L.) Reichb., known as J'inca rosea, is cultivated 
generally and may also be found wild as an escape from gardens. 

Another vine or liana belonging to this family is Beaumontia 
grandiflora ( Roxb. ) Wall, a climber of great beauty. It is a native 
of the Eastern Himalaya and cultivated widely. Some fine speci- 
mens occur in Honolulu. It is easily recognized by the large white 
flowers. Of late Carissa carandas L. has also been in cultivation. 
It has white, fragrant flowers and scarlet, edible fruits, and is a 
native of Africa. 

Of the family Asclepiadaceae (Milk-weed family.) Cryptostegia 
grandiflora (Roxb.) R. Br. may be mentioned. It is supposed to be 
a native of Madagascar, and has pale purple flowers. It is occasion- 
ally planted in Honolulu but is not common. 

Other climbing species belonging here are: Hoya carnosa R. Br., 
the wax plant, and Stephanotis floribunda Brong., with large, white 
tubular, strong-scented flowers. Calotropis gigantea R. Br., the giant 
milk-weed, a native of India, is of tree-like habit and occasionally 
planted ; the leaves are broad, whitish and woolly beneath ; the 
flowers are rose and purple colored. 

Plumiera acutifolia Poir. 

Temple Flowers, Graveyard Flowers, Fraxgipaxi. 

The Plumiera or Plumeria, as it is commonly called in Honolulu, 
is a milky tree nine to twenty feet in height, with fleshy swollen 
branchlets which are leafy at their tips. The leaves, which appear 
after the flowering stage, are oblong, narrowed at both ends and 
eight to sixteen inches long. 

Plate LXX. 

Plumiera rubra Linn. 

Red Plumiera. 
Flowering specimen. 

Apocynaceae. 177 

The numerous very fragrant flowers with strangely overlapping 
corolla-lobes are yellow, or white and yellow, within ; the fruit is a 
linear-oblong or ellipsoid follicle. 

This species is one of forty belonging to the genus Plumiera, all 
of which are peculiar to tropical America. It is now commonly 
cultivated for its fragrant flowers, which bloom nearly all the year 
round, and is very common about Honolulu, especially in cemeteries. 
The Hawaiians make leis or wreaths from the flowers by threading 
them and by pushing one flower into the tube of the other. This 
lei is a favorite with the Honolulu people, who decorate their depart- 
ing friends with it. 

The Plumiera is now cultivated in many tropical countries as an 
ornamental tree. It was found in India growing abundantly as long 
ago as 1787 by a Dr. Hove, who mentions that the natives used the 
bark of this tree for intermittent fever as we do cinchona. The leaves 
when made into a poultice are used to dispel swellings, while the 
milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. In northern 
Bengal the milky juice of this tree has been found to be an effectual 
purgative. Another but rare species, Plumiera rubra L., the Red 
Plumiera, a native of tropical America, has been cultivated by Mr. 
W. M. Giffard. The first specimen was brought to Honolulu from 
Mexico by Mrs. Paul Neumann and was given to Mr. E. W. 
Jordan, who turned the specimen over to Mr. W. M. Giffard on 
whose premises the tree has attained magnificent proportions. See 
Plate LXX. 

The original tree was fertilized in the normal manner by the 
common hawk-moth, the pollen coming from the yellow variety of 
Plumiera acutifolia, produced seeds, which in turn were planted and 
thus were obtained the first hybrids which were distributed over the 
city. Many crosses exist now between the common species and the 
red one. 

Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. 

Alstonia scholaris is a tall, glabrous tree reaching a height of 
over sixty feet, producing an abundance of milky sap. The branches 
are whorled, the leaves verticillate, leathery, about eight inches long, 
oblong-obovate, rounded at the apex and pointed at the base. The 
flowers are arranged in terminal cymes, which are umbellately 
branched. The small white flowers are numerous and crowded. The 
follicles are pendulous, slender, cylindrical and eight to sixteen 
inches long. 

It is a widely distributed species, occurring in Africa, tropical 

Plate LXXI. 

Ochrosia elliptica La Bill. 
Fruiting branch. 

Apocynaceae. 179 

Asia, Malay and Australia. There are only two trees in the Ter- 
ritory as far as the writer is aware ; both may be found in the prem- 
ises of Dr. W. Hillebrand on Xuuanu Avenue, who is responsible for 
its introduction to Hawaii. The tree is commercially known as Dita 
Bark, and occurs under various names in India, where it grows in 
the sub-Himalayan tracts up to 3000 feet elevation. Dita Bark is a 
valuable and highly ornamental tree which deserves to be cultivated. 
It is used medicinally and is listed in the Pharmacopaeia of India. 
The bark is an astringent and is given as a tonic. The milky juice 
is applied to ulcers and is also used to restore the tone of the stom- 
ach in debility, and the substance known as Ditain is considered equal 
to the best sulphate of quinine, and at the same time is free from 
the secondary disagreeable symptoms of the latter drug. Ditain was 
first separated from the bark in the form of an uncn stallizable prin- 
cipal, by a druggist in Manila. 

Ochrcsia elliptica La Bill. 

(Syn. O. calocarpa Miq. Lactaria calocarpa Hassk. ) 

Plate LXXI. 

Considerable confusion exists in regard to the nomenclature of 
this striking species. The writer saw the tree growing in the gardens 
of Peradenya, Ceylon, under the name of Ochrosia acuminata, and 
was found published in "List of plants grown in the Bot. Gard. of 
Peradenya," 1888, p. 51 (name only). Dr. Valeton of Java des- 
cribed and figured a species under 0. acuminata Trimen, which is, 
however, an entirely different plant, with yellowish-green, pointed 
fruits. The species here in cultivation has bright scarlet fruits, 
which have a violet odor, and is identical with Ochrosia elliptica 
La Bill., described from Australia. This latter name Valeton cites 
doubtfully as a synonym of Ochrosia calocarpa, which he figures and 
declares to be polymorphous species. One figure agrees exactly with 
our plant. Since elliptica is the older specific name it is here re- 

Ochrosia elliptica La Bill, is a small, milky tree with leaves 
horizontally arranged in whorls of three or four or occasionally op- 
posite, and elliptical in outline. The flowers are cream-colored, fra- 
grant, and are arranged in corymbose cymes. The fruit, which 
consists of two drupes, is scarlet, each drupe is acuminate and an inch 
or two long. 

When in fruit this tree is quite conspicuous, the scarlet drupes 
being handsomely contrasted against the green glossy foliage. 

Plate LXXII. 

Thevetia neriifolia .luss. 
Flowering and fruiting specimen of the Yellow Oleander or Be-still Tree. 

Apocynaceae. 181 

It is a native of Queensland, Australia, as well as of some of the 
Pacific islands, as New Caledonia and Fiji. In Hawaii the plant is 
cultivated, trees occurring at Ainahau at Waikiki, Airs. Jaeger's 
premises, on the Government Nursery Grounds and the largest in 
the garden of the late Dr. W. Hillebrand, who evidently introduced 
it into these Islands. 

Cerbera odollam Gaertn. 

Cerbera odollam is a small tree about twenty to twenty-five feet 
in height, with lanceolate to oblong lanceolate leaves, which are 
narrowed at both ends. The flowers are arranged in cymes, which 
are as long as the leaves, the flowers are white, about one and a half 
inches long, the tube is slender and the lobes spreading. The fruit 
is borne in pairs more or less united, or singly, and is two and a half 
inches or more long, ellipsoidal or ovoid in outline. 

This very poisonous tree is a cosmopolitan on the seashores of the 
tropics, occurring in India, China, Malay, Australia and Polynesia. 
It has been introduced into these Islands a few decades ago. The 
writer knows of two trees, one on the premises of the grammar 
school on Emma Street, formerly Princess Ruth Keelikolani's palace, 
and another on the Government Nursery grounds. 

The milky sap and the leaves have been used in India as an 
emetic, but their use has been condemned, as even moderate quan- 
tities possess so much poison as to be dangerous. The nut is also 
poisonous and narcotic, the green fruits having been employed in 
India to kill dogs. The kernel of the fruit is considered an irritant 
poison, which when taken internally produces vomiting and purging 
and is soon followed by collapse and death. The wood is soft-spongy 
and gray in color. 

Thevetia neriifolia Jnss. 

Be-still Tree, Campanilla, Yellow Oleander. 

Plate LXXII. 

This very poisonous small tree, erroneously called yellow olean- 
der, reaches a height of fifteen to twenty feet, is much branched 
and possesses a copious milky sap. The leaves are linear, sessile, and 
shining. The flowers, which are borne singly in the axils of the 
leaves and the branches, are bell-shaped, bright yellow, and very fra- 
grant, having the odor of the tea rose. The fruit is a subglobose, 

182 Apocynaceae. 

glabrous, shining drupe, an inch in diameter, and becomes black when 

It is an ornamental shrub or small tree introduced from tropi- 
cal America and now cultivated in many tropical countries. It flowers 
all the year round, and is quite commonly planted in and about 
Honolulu. It is well naturalized in Bengal and the plains of India. 

From the seeds a bright yellow oil is expressed, which burns well 
without giving off much smoke, it is also of medicinal value, as it 
contains triolein, tripamitin and tristearin. De Vry obtained, after 
expression of the oil, from the cake, about four per cent of a beauti- 
ful crystallized white glucoside, which he called thevetine ; the same 
substance was obtained from the bark. 

The milky juice of this tree is highly poisonous. The bark, which 
is a cathartic, is also a powerful febrifuge, and was tried in the form 
of a tincture in various forms of intermittent fever with good results. 
When given in large doses it is a powerful poison, in smaller doses 
it acts as an acrid purgative and emetic. 

The poison contained in the seeds, juice, and bark, belongs to the 
class of acro-narotic poisons. Great caution is necessary in all trials 
with this remedy. 

A second species, Thevetia Iccotli DC, a native of Mexico, is 
cultivated in Kapiolani Park. It differs from the foregoing in the 
larger flowers and the very narrow linear leaves, which are pubescent 
underneath and are also revolute. 

Nerium indicum Mill. 

(Syn. Nerium odorum Soland.) 

Nerium indicum differs from Nerium oleander of the Mediter- 
ranean region in the sweet-scented flowers and ternate leaves. The 
latter species may also be in cultivation in the Islands, but those 
which the writer examined belong all to Nerium indicum. It is 
an erect shrub with the leaves in whorls of three to four, they are 
linear-lanceolate and pointed. The flowers are about two inches 
across, white, pink, or red, and are quite fragrant. It often pro- 
duces fruit (two long follicles) quite profusely. 

It is a native of India, ranging from Afghanistan to Japan, but 
is now cultivated in most tropical, subtropical, and even temperate 
regions. It can be grown from seed, layers and cuttings, and is pro- 
fusely planted all over Honolulu, as well as on the other islands. 

Apoc) naceae-Borraginaceae. 183 

N. oleander, the true Oleander, differs from it in having broader 
leaves and larger, scentless flowers. 

Both species are poisonous ; the root is especially poisonous, but 
considered a remedy in skin diseases. From the root are obtained two 
bitter principals, known as Neriodorin, a substance soluble in chloro- 
form, and Neriodorein, a substance soluble in water but not in 
chloroform. Both are very powerful heart poisons. Overdoses of the 
roots cause tetanic symptoms, and in case of poisoning the heart action 
is greatly reduced. The flowers play a religious part among the 
natives of India who collect them as a sacred offering to Siva. 


Heliotrope Family. 

Besides the common Heliotrope, Heliotropium peruvianum Linn., 
the following trees are in cultivation. 

Cordia sebestena Linn. 

Foreign Kou. 

Cordia sebestena is a shrub or small tree with ovate, subcordate 
leaves which are scabrous on the upper surface and slightly pubes- 
cent underneath. The flowers are large orange or scarlet and borne 
in terminal cymes. The fruits are snow-white. 

It is a native of tropical America, but can quite often be found 
in cultivation. In Honolulu a few mature trees occur, as for exam- 
ple on Thomas Square and in private grounds on King Street. It is 
easily grown from seeds when the latter are quite fresh, and also 
from cuttings. 

Cordia myxa Linn. 

Cordia myxa is a small sized tree fifteen to thirty feet in height, 
and is nearly glabrous. The leaves are ovate or elliptical-ovate, 
entire and have a somewhat wavy margin. 

The inflorescence is corymbose and axillary, bearing very small, 
sessile, white or yellowish-white flowers. The drupe is fleshy, ovoid, 
yellowish-white and somewhat enclosed by the persistent and en- 
larged calyx. 

Cordia myxa is a native of India, extending also to Burmah and 
Malay. It is wild along the Himalayas and flowers in March and 
April. The fruit, which is very mucilaginous, is used medicinally, 
the mucilage being given in diseases of the chest and also as an as- 
tringent gargle. It is also employed as a laxative in bilious affec- 
tions, and the kernels are considered a remedy for ringworm. The 

1 84 Borraginaceae-Verbenaceae. 

wood is gray, moderately hard, but is readily attacked by insects. 

The tree was introduced by Prof. Koebele, and quite a number 
of specimens may be seen along the Pali Road. 

Besides the above species there is in cultivation Cordia Collo- 
cocca DC. a native of the West Indies, and another species, prob- 
ably Cordia alba R. S., introduced by the U. S. Experiment Station 
under the name Cordia latifolia, with which it has nothing in com- 

Tcurnefortia argentea Linn. 

Tourntfortia argenta is a small tree fifteen to twenty feet in 
height or taller, with closely placed leaves at the end of the branches, 
the former obovate-oblong, tapering at the base, and are covered 
with a whitish-gray, silky pubescence, as are also the twigs. 

The numerous white flowers are borne in large terminal silky- 
pubescent cymes. The fruit is the size of a small pea, globose-de- 
pressed, smooth, and the nutlet is corky. 

Tournefortia argentea is decidedly a beach tree and has a very 
wide distribution. It is by far the principal tree on the coral islets 
or atolls of the Pacific, as, for example, on Palmyra Island, where 
the tree encircles all the low coral islets. In its branches the com- 
mon booby, Sula piscator, erects its roosting place. See Bulletin No. 
4, College of Hawaii Publication, "Palmyra Island, With a De- 
scription of Its Flora," by the writer. 

In Honolulu only very few trees are in cultivation, as on Young 
Street in the Japanese school grounds and one on the other side of 
Oahu beyond Haleiwa. 

At Kahului, on the Island of Maui, there are several tall trees 
near the beach. 

The tree is of little economic value, though quite ornamental. 


Verbexa Family. 

Besides the species of J r itex, Tectona, and Duranta, the family 
is represented by several species of Clerodendron : — CI. fragrans 
Vent., a garden weed with pink and white flowers found along road- 
sides. The flowers have an overpowering odor. 

CI. Thomsonae Bait, is a climber and easily recognized by the 
white or cream-colored calyx and red corolla which brought it the 
name Bleeding Heart. 

CI. Siphonanthus R. Br. is also in cultivation but quite rare. 
One of the finest is CI. squamatum Vahl, with scarlet inflorescence 
and flowers, and dark blue-black, fleshy berries. 

Verbenaceae. 185 

Vitex pubescens Vahl. 

Jitex pubescens is a large evergreen tree with quadrangular 
branches. The leaves consist of five leaflets which are sessile, and 
as the inflorescence, are densely clothed with a soft, tawny pubes- 
cence. The inflorescence is dense, pyramidal, three to five inches 
across. The bracts are persistent. The drupe is small, globose and 

This species, of which there is only one specimen in Honolulu, 
in Dr. Hillebrand's garden, is a native of India, Burmah and the 
Andaman Islands. The wood is smooth, gray, hard and close- 

Another species of Vitex not definitely identified is a large tree 
with gray bark and very hard wood ; the leaves are three-foliate 
and densely pubescent, as are the young branches. The flowers are 
blue and axillary, the drupe globose and about half an inch in diam- 
eter. It may be identical- with V. vestita Wall. 

Tectona grandis Linn. 

The Teak Tree. 

Plate LXXIII. 

The Teak, when full-grown reaches a height of eighty to one 
hundred feet, has quadrangular branches which are stellately tomen- 
tose. The leaves are very large, especially the young ones or those 
of seedlings, measuring sometimes three feet. The flowering pani- 
cles are terminal, eighteen inches or more in diameter, bearing numer- 
ous flowers, only few of which are fertile; the corolla is only one- 
fourth inch long, and white. The fruit is a drupe two-thirds of an 
inch in diameter, four-celled, with a central cavity which is densely 
hairy ; the calyx, which is persistent and encloses the fruit, is ovoid 
to subpyramidal, membraneous and often reticulately nerved. 

The Teak is a large deciduous tree, indigenous to the peninsulas 
of India, the drier regions of Eastern Java, Sumatra, and is also 
found on a few islands of the Indian Archipelago. In Burmah it 
extends to the twenty-fifth degree of north latitude, but no exact 
information is available in regard to the area under Teak in India ; 
it is estimated, however, that the supply is practically unlimited. The 
most extensive Teak forests occur in upper Burmah and are com- 
mercially the most important of all forests in British possession. The 
Teak does not form natural pure forests except on alluvial soils, 
in which the growth of the Teak is rather rapid, thus giving it an 

Plate LXXIII. 

Tectona grandis Linn. f. 
Flowering and fruiting specimen. 

Yerbenaceae. 187 

advantage over competing vegetation. Owing to its commercial 
value Teak has been planted extensively in India, the Andaman 
Islands, and other neighboring countries. 

The sapwood of the Teak is white and small, while the heart- 
wood when cut gives off a pleasant, rather strong aromatic odor, the 
color of the heartwood is a dark golden yellow, which on seasoning 
darkens into brown and becomes mottled with darker streaks. It is 
moderately hard, exceedingly durable, does not split, warp, shrink nor 
alter its shape when once seasoned. Most of the Burmese pagodas 
or shrines are carved of Teak, its durability is mainly due to a large 
quantity of resinous fluids that it contains, which fill the pores and 
thus resist the action of water. Teak-wood two thousand years old 
seems perfectly good at the present day. 

The leaves of the Teak are said to yield a dye of a red or yellow 
color used mainly for dyeing silks. 

The native physicians of Burmah recommend the medicinal prop- 
erties of the Teak for various ailments, for example, a plaster of 
powdered wood for bilious headaches and for dispersion of inflam- 
matory swellings. Charred wood saturated with poppy juice and 
reduced to a smooth paste is used to relieve swellings of the eyelids, 
etc. The bark is employed as an astringent and the oil of the nuts, 
which has an agreeable odor, is used as a hair tonic, and is supposed 
to remove itching of the skin. 

Though cultivated in many tropical countries, the tree is rare in 
Honolulu, only very few trees exist, perhaps only a half-dozen in all. 
One can be found on the Government Nursery grounds on King 
Street and others on Mrs. Jaeger's grounds on King and Punahou 
Streets, and on Mrs. Foster's premises on Nuuanu Street. Owing 
to its deciduous character and rather slow growth it is not a tree 
to be recommended for ornamental plantings. 

Duranta repens Linn. 

Golden Dewdrop. 

Plate LXXIV. 

Duranta repens, commonly known as Duranta plumieri Jacq., is 
an unarmed, glabrous, erect shrub six to ten feet high with the 
branches often drooping. The leaves are obovate-elliptical, the base 
is wedge-shaped and the margins toothed above the middle. The 
axillary racemes form terminal panicles, which are slender and spread- 
ing with the flowers mostly on one side of the rachis ; the former are 
blue or white; the fruit is flesh}-, ovoid, and yellow. 

Plate LXXIV. 

Duranta repens L 
Flowering branch. 

Verbenaceae-Solanaceae. 189 

Duranta repens is a native of tropical America, hut is widely cul- 
tivated in the tropics. In Honolulu it is quite plentifully planted 
as a hedge for which it is splendidly adapted. The genus was 
named in honor of Castor Durantes, a botanist who died in 1590 
in Rome. 

Mention must be made of Petraea volubilis Jacq., a climbing 
shrub with long racemes of blue flowers and very rough, scabrid, 
grayish-green leaves, which gave it the name Sandpaper Vine. The 
ordinary, now naturalized, Lantana, L. camara L., belongs also to 
the family I erbenaceae. 


Potato Family. 

The Potato family is represented by several genera of which the 
most noteworthy are the following: Cyphomandra Hartwegi Sendt., 
a native of New Granada, cultivated on account of its ovoid fruits, 
which remind one of the taste and flavor of the tomato, whence it is 
known as Tree-tomato. It makes excellent preserves, and is also pala- 
table uncooked, stewed it makes a delicious desert. To the vines be- 
long Solatium IV en (11 an du Hook, f., the Potato vine, with large many- 
flowered cymes of blue flowers an inch and a half in diameter, and 
another species with smaller, blue flowers. One of the finest climb- 
ers, with large, yellow flowers is the Golden Cup, Solandra grandi- 
flora Sw., a native of Mexico and Central American Islands. It is 
easily grown from cuttings or seeds. Of shrubs the following may 
be mentioned: Oestrum nocturnum L., known here as Chinese Ink- 
berry, and very common in Honolulu, especially in Nuuanu Valley; 
it is a native of tropical America; others are Cestrum diurnum L., 
also called Chinese-Inkberry in Honolulu, and C. aurantiacum Lindl. 
with yellow flowers. The latter is not common. 

Of interest is also Datura arborea Linn., the so-called Angel's 
Trumpet, a small tree with ovate-lanceolate leaves which have the 
margin entire; the flowers are large, white, trumpet-like, and have a 
musky odor ; the calyx is spathe-like and the limbs of the corolla are 
long, facts which distinguish it from Datura suaveolens H. et B. The 
latter has an inflated calyx with five obscure teeth, short corolla 
limbs, and an angular tube. Both species are probably in cultivation. 
They are natives of Chile and Peru. Specimens are rather rare in 
Honolulu, but common on Hawaii from Hilo to Glenwood, along 
the Volcano Road. 

Plate LXXV. 

Jacaranda ovalifolia R. Br. 
Flowering branch of the Jacaranda. 

Bignoniaceae. 191 


Bigxoxia Family. 

The Bignonia family, which is represented in these Islands by the 
cultivated species of flowering trees described in the following pages, 
has also several vines of great beauty well established in the resi- 
dence section of Honolulu, such as the orange trumpet vine, Pyro- 
stegia (Bignonia) venusta, Bignonia unguis-cati, Cat's-claw Climber 
or Hug-me-tight, formerly known as Bignonia tweediana; the grace- 
ful Bignonia jasminoides with pale purplish flowers, and one or two 
others which do not come within the scope of this work. 

The family belongs decidedly to the tropics, and possesses about 
one hundred genera with four hundred fifty or more species. 

Tecomaria capensis (Thbg. ) Fenzl., supposedly a native of Bra- 
zil, but found wild all over the Cape of South Africa, cannot well 
be omitted. It is a shrub but more often a low bush with prostrate 
runners. The flowers are borne in terminal racemes, and are of a 
scarlet color. It fruits rarely, the capsules are linear and compressed. 
Shrubs of this species may be seen at the Haleiwa Hotel grounds, 
at the College of Hawaii Campus and elsewhere. 

Parmentiera cerifera Seem., the Candle Tree, is of recent intro- 
duction. Specimens have been planted at the College grounds. The 
tree forms large forests in Panama, which are covered at all seasons 
with long, yellow, candle-like fruits. 

Jacaranda ovalifolia K. Br. 

(Syn. Jacaranda mimosa efolia D. Don.) 


Plate LXXV. 

The Jacaranda is a very handsome medium-sized tree with bi- 
pinnate leaves which remind one of those of the Poinciana. The 
leaflets are rhomboid, oblong, somewhat pointed and little over one- 
fourth of an inch long. The handsome, pale bluish-purple flowers 
are arranged in large terminal cymes. The calyx is small, while 
the bluish bell-shaped corolla is two inches long; the tube is curved 
below, inflated above, and the limb two-lipped, with one lip two- 
lobed, the other three-lobed. The fruit is a capsule, circular in out- 
line and flat. 

The genus Jacaranda possesses more than thirty species distributed 
from the Bermuda Islands to Brazil. The tree in question is a 

192 Bignoniaceae. 

native of Brazil and Argentine, but is cultivated for ornamental 
purposes in many tropical countries. It flowers in the early spring 
before the appearance of the leaves and is exceedingly striking when 
in the height of its flowering season. 

It is quite extensively planted in and about Honolulu ; fine speci- 
mens can be seen along King Street, Keeaumoku Street and in other 
parts of Honolulu. The tree is at any time an object of beauty on 
account of its handsome, graceful foliage, and when bare it is con- 
spicuous for the mass of blue, bell-shaped flowers. 

It is worthy of being planted more extensively; an avenue of this 
elegant tree would enhance the beauty of Honolulu considerably. 

Sparattosperma verniccsum (Cham.) Bur. et K. Sch. 

(Syn. Sparattosperma lithotripticum Mart.) 


Sparattosperma vernicosum is a magnificent tree which becomes 
bare for a certain period in the year just before flowering. It is me- 
dium sized, somewhat buttressed at the base, has a straight trunk 
and a few ascending branches. The long petioled leaves consist of 
five leaflets, digitately arranged. The inflorescence is a terminal 
panicle bearing a profusion of canary-yellow flowers in the summer 
months when the tree is otherwise bare of foliage. 

It is a magnificent spectacle when in full bloom and certainly 
deserves to be cultivated. It is a native of Brazil, but can now be 
found in many botanic gardens in the tropics. In Honolulu there 
are only two mature specimens, one of which flowered profusely 
two years ago for the first time. One is on Judd Street, the other 
in Mrs. M. E. Foster's premises on Nuuanu Avenue. The writer 
brought two young trees of this specimen with him from Java. 
They were grown at Buitenzorg from seed. It is known also as 
Sp. lithotripticum, and is famous as a medicinal remedy, taking the 
place of lithotripsy, whence the specific name. The species was 
introduced by Dr. W. Hillebrand. 

Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. 


The Amarillo is an erect, branched shrub or small tree reaching 
a height of about twelve feet when full-grown. The opposite leaves 
are odd-pinnate, about eight inches long, consisting of five to seven 
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate leaflets, with sharply serrated margins. 
The flowering panicles are terminal, with the flowers racemosely ar- 
ranged on the few branches; the yellow bell-shaped corolla is about 

Bignoniaceae. 193 

two inches long; the capsular fruit is linear, six inches long by one- 
third of an inch wide. 

The Amarillo is merely an ornamental shrub and is planted 
mainly for its showy yellow flowers. It is a native of tropical 
America, but has found its way into many tropical countries, where 
it is cultivated. In Honolulu it occurs here and there in gardens 
and private grounds. A well-established specimen may be found in 
the Queen's Hospital grounds. 

Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. 

Fountain Tree, or Tulip Tree. 

Plate LXXVI. 

The Fountain or Tulip Tree is of medium size, but occasionally 
reaches a height of seventy or eighty feet. The leaves are odd- 
pinnate, consisting of usually nine leaflets which are elliptical- 
oblong, slightly pointed at the apex and of a dark green color; the 
upper leaflets are larger than the lower ones. The large flowers, 
which are borne on the ends of the branches, are bright orange-red 
with golden-yellow margins. The ground beneath the trees is often 
thickly covered with the exceedingly striking and handsome flowers. 

The unexpanded flowers contain a quantity of water, which 
fact has secured for this tree the name "fountain tree" in India, 
where it is cultivated as an ornamental shade tree. 

The genus consists of three species, all of which are natives of 
tropical Africa. The species in question has been in cultivation, in 
many tropical countries on account of its very conspicuous flowers. 

In Honolulu there are only a few specimens, the largest ones 
occurring in Mrs. Jaeger's and in Mrs. Foster's grounds, on Puna- 
hou Street and Nuuanu Avenue respectively. Smaller ones grow in 
Mr. Samuel Damon's grounds at Moanalua Gardens. The trees 
do not seed here, but could easily be grown from cuttings, and ought 
to be planted more extensively in avenues. 

In regard to the uses made of this tree, other than ornamental, 
nothing definite is known. 

The seeds of this tree are whitish, fine, fluffy, and fill a capsule 
which is boat-shaped and about ten or twelve inches long. The 
capsules are used by the children of the natives in Java as playthings, 
as they make perfect little canoes. Seeds have been imported from 
Madagascar and the writer has also brought them from Java, to- 
gether with living seedlings. 

Plate LXXVI. 


■St /w' 


K ^^^^SjjfejfrJii 

^— ^ < 


Spathodea campanulata Beauv. 

Fountain or Tulip Tree. 
Flowering specimen; to the right, branch with flower buds. 

Bignoniaceae. 195 

The Fountain or Tulip Tree will not be a rarity in Honolulu in 
the near future, as over 2000 seedlings are on hand at present. 

Crescentia cujute L. 
Calabash Tree. 

The Calabash Tree is a glabrous tree with stout, stiff, hori- 
zontally spreading branches, and reaches a height of about fifteen 
feet. The leaves are fascicled or alternate, and spatulate in outline, 
obtuse or shortly pointed, narrowing at the base and subsessile — 
that is, with hardly a leaf-stalk. The upper surface of the leaves is 
glossy. The flowers, which have a rather foetid odor, grow singly 
or in pairs, are curved and are pale green with faint purplish lines; 
the five equal lobes are pointed and toothed. The fruit is globose, 
green or purplish and six to ten inches in diameter. 

Of the five species of the genus Crescentia, the Calabash Tree is 
the best known. It is a native of the West Indies and South 
America, but is occasionally cultivated in many tropical countries. 

The fruit is used for receptacles of various kinds and can be 
shaped to any desired form while growing, by means of binding. 
The juice of the fruit is used as a purge, and is said to cause abortion 
in cattle. Medicinally the pulp is employed together with other 
ingredients as a cough remedy. 

The wood, which is rather tough and flexible, is used in Jamaica 
for shafts, saddles, chairs and other articles requiring such wood. 

In Honolulu quite a number of trees of this species can be found 
in the various grounds of private residences, especially along the lower 
part of King Street, also in the Capitol grounds. It is conspicuous 
for its large globose fruits, which are almost sessile on the long, 
spreading, stiff branches. 

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. 

Sausage Tree. 

Plate LXXVII. 

The Sausage Tree is a wide-spreading deciduous tree about thirty 
feet in height, with odd-pinnate, alternate leaves ; the leaflets are 
ovoid to elliptical, and pointed or rounded at the apex. The large 
showy flowers, which range in color from dark purplish-red to 
magenta, are about four inches in diameter, and bell-shaped ; they 
are arranged in long pendulous loose panicles and last only one day. 
The remarkable fruits are grayish in color, oblong in shape, and 

Plate LXXVII. 

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. 

Sausage Tree. 
Flowering specimens. 

Bignoniaceae-Acanthaceae. 197 

are suspended on the peduncles which increase in length during the 
maturing of the fruit. The latter is fifteen to twenty inches long 
and three to four inches thick. The resemblance of the fruit to a 
large sausage gave it the rather undignified name" Sausage Tree." 

Kigelia africana, as the specific name implies, is a native of 
Africa, especially of the western tropical coast of that continent. It 
has been in cultivation, however, in most tropical countries and has 
found its way also to Hawaii. 

As the tree is deciduous — that is, bare of leaves for a certain 
time during the year, it is not well adapted for street planting; an- 
other disadvantage is the dropping of the flowers shortly after their 

In Honolulu there are several of these trees; the largest and 
finest can be found in the Queen's Hospital grounds, while others 
are near the entrance in Air. Charles Atherton's grounds on King 
Street, and still others at Aloanalua Gardens and Kapiolani Park. 

Except for ornamental purposes the tree is of no economic value. 
When planted, however, it should be given plenty of room, as it is 
a spreading tree, developing a symmetrical crown. 


The family Acanihaceae is represented by four genera out of 
the 204, which possess about 2000 species, all natives of tropical and 
warm regions. Besides Graptophyllum pictum, described below, 
there are in cultivation Thunbergia erecta ( Benth.) And., an erect 
glabrous shrub with a slender four-angled stem ; the white flowers 
are axillary and solitary; Thunbergia grandiflora ( Rottb. et Willd.) 
Roxb., a large, coarse, somewhat woody vine, with large, axillary 
flowers which may be solitary or arranged in long pendulous race- 
mes ; the corolla is of a pale blue ; it is a native of India. 

Barleria cristata L. is a much-branched shrub with violet flowers 
and two persistent green sepals, which are laciniately toothed. It is 
a native of India, and is usually grown as a hedge. It grows freely 
from cuttings. 

Sanchezia nobilis Hook., an erect shrub, is also cultivated ; it 
is a native of Ecuador. 

Of the family Scrophulariaceac, Russelia juncea Zucc, the Coral 
Flower, an erect, nearly leafless plant, with angled stem and bright 
red tubular flowers, is often planted on rockeries. It is a native of 


Graptophyllum pictum ( L. ) Griff. 
Flowering branch of the green leaved variety. 

Acanthaceae-Rubiaceae. 199 

Graptophyllnm pictum (L.) Griff. 

( Syn. Graptophyllum hortexse Xees.) 



The name Morado, which is of Spanish origin, is applied to this 
species in the Philippines and for want -of a name in Honolulu ma}' 
be adopted here. 

The Morado belongs to the Acanthus family (Acanthaceae) and 
is an erect branching shrub six to ten feet in height; the leaves are 
opposite, oblong to broadly elliptic, somewhat pointed at both ends, 
four to eight inches long, two to four inches wide, green and vari- 
ously mottled with white or yellowish-white, or dull purple, with 
short leaf-stalks. The two-lipped, dull purple or reddish-purple 
flowers are borne in terminal panicles and are one and a half inches 
long, the upper lip is shortly two-fid, the lower three-lobed, stamens 
two with two small staminodia ; the ovary is four-ovuled. 

The fruit is an oblong, hard, long-stalked capsule. The Morado 
is a native of New Guinea and the neighboring islands, but, owing 
to its variegated leaves, which remind one of the crotons, and the 
rather handsome purple flowers, has been in cultivation in many 
tropical countries, and can be found in Honolulu in a great many 
residential grounds. 

The name Graptophyllum is from the Greek, meaning "writing" 
and "leaves" in allusion to the variously marked leaves. The genus 
consists of four species, natives of Australia and Polynesia. 

Graptophyllum hortense Xees., a horticultural variety of this 
species, has bronze-colored mottled leaves; it occurs sparingly in 


Coffee Family. 

The Coffee family is an exceedingly large one, comprising about 
400 genera with over 5500 species, which occur mainly in the tropics 
and sub-tropical regions. Of introduced genera only a few are 
worth mentioning. Two species of Coffee are under cultivation as 
Coffea arabica L. and Coffea liberica Bull., the latter growing wild 
as an escape from cultivation in the mountains back of Honolulu, 
the former is cultivated extensively in Kona, Hawaii. 

Ornamental species are Rondeletia odorata Jacq., a native of 

Plate LXX1X. 

Ixora macrothyrsa Theijsm. et Binn. 

Rubiaceae. 201 

Cuba and Mexico. Specimens may be seen in Mrs. M. E. Foster's 
premises, in the grounds of the Central Grammar School, and else- 
where. It resembles a small Ixora with small rugose leaves, the 
flowers are more of an orange-red. Gardenia florida L., the fragrant 
white Gardenia, is commonly cultivated. The flowers are usually 
double. It is a native of China and Japan, but is now widely 
planted. A little over a year ago the writer introduced a few 
plants of the exceedingly handsome Mussaenda erythrophylla Schum. 
et Thon. from Singapore. It is a native of the Congo and the West 
Coast of Africa, and is considered one of the finest ornamental 
plants. It is in flower practically all the year round, and is con- 
spicuous on account of the large, ovate bracts, which are of a deep 
carmine red. It is easily grown from cuttings. 

Cinchona succirubra R. et P., the Quinine Tree, a native of Peru, 
and Ecuador where it grows wild on the slopes of Mt. Chimborazo, 
has been planted on Maui, where a few trees may still be seen near 
Makawao village. 

Ixora macrothyrsa Theijsm. et Binn. 


Plate LXXIX. 

This exceedingly handsome species is a large glabrous shrub with 
leaves nearly a foot long, oblong-linear in outline. The flowering 
cluster is very large, often eight inches across, bearing many deep 
red flowers with lanceolate obtuse lobes. It is a native of Malay, 
but now one of the most commonly cultivated species. It is easily 
grown from cuttings. In Honolulu it can be found in practically 
every yard and is also sold by florists. 

Ixora coccinea Linn, is another species commonly cultivated in 
Honolulu. It is a shrub with sessile or subsessile cordate leaves, 
and corymbiform, densely flowered cymes. The corolla is scarlet. 
It is a native of the Malay Peninsula and Ceylon. It flowers through- 
out the year. 

Hybrids of Ixora macrothyrsa are also in cultivation, besides one 
or two species of Pavetta. 



Names in italics are synonyms, 

Acacia catechu 76 

Acacia dealbata 76, 87 

Acacia decurrens 76, 85 

Acacia Farnesiana 76 

Acacia Koa 85, 122 

Acacia melanoxylon 85 

Acalypha 128 

Acalypha cuneata 128 

Acalypha marginata 128 

Acalypha obovata 128 

Acalvpha YVilkesiana 128 

(Plate LII.) 

Acanthaceae 197 

Acapulco 101 

Achras sapota 172 

Actinophloeus Macarthuri 11 

Adansonia digitata 145 

(Plates LVIII and LIX.) 

Adenanthera pavonina 91 

Aegle marmelos 120 

Agathis australis 4 

Albizzia Lebbek (Plate XXXIV.) 83 

Albizzia lebbekoides 76 

Albizzia saponaria 85 

(Plate XXXV.) 

Albizzia stipulata 76 

Aleurites moluccana 127 

Alexandra Palm 13, 47 

Algaroba 87 

Allamanda cathartica 175 

Allamanda Hendersonii 175 

Alligator Pear 72 

Allspice 168 - 

Alstonia scholaris 177 

Alternanthera versicolor 69 

Amarillo 192 

Amherstia nobilis 77 

Amoora Aphanamixis 125 

Amoora cucullata 125 

Amoora grandifolia (Plate LI.) 125 

Amur 125 

Anacardiaceae 132 

Anacardium occidentale 132 

Anatto 159 

Andaman Redwood 115 

Angel's Trumpet 189 

Angiospermae 9 

Anonaceae 70 

Anona Cherimolia 70 

Anona muricata 70 

Anona reticulata 70 

Anona squamosa 70 

Antigonon leptopus 69 

Apocynaceae 175 

Apulco 101 

Araceae 57 

Araliaceae 168 

Aralia Family 168 

Araucaria Bidvvillii (Plate II.) 7 

Araucaria Cookii 7 

Araucaria cunninghamii 7 

Araucaria excelsa 6 

Archontophoenix alexandrae 13, 47 

(Plate XX.) 

Archontophoenix elegans 47 

Ardisia Family 171 

Ardisia humilis 171 

Ardisia solanacea 171 

Areca Catechu (Plate I.VI.) 49 

Areca lutescens 43 

Areca rubra 47 

Arecastrum Romanzorhanum 57 

Arenga obtusifolia 41 

(Plate XVIII.) 

Arenga Saccharifera 39 

(Plate XVII.) 

Aroma 76 

Artabotrys uncinatus 71 

Artocarpus communis 62 

Artocarpus integrifolia 62 

Asclepiadaceae 175 

Asoka Tree 91 

Attalea Cohune (Plate' XXIII.). ...53 

Averrhoa carambola 120 

Avocado 72 

Azadirachta indica 123 

Bael fruit 120 

Bamboo Palm 17 

Banana Family 57 

Banyan Tree 63 

Baobab Tree 145 

Barleria cristata 197 

Barringtonia asiatica 163 

(Plate LXVII.) 

Barringtonia racemosa 165 

Barringtonia speciosa 163 

Barringtonia Family 163 

Bastard Cedar 155 

Bauhinia monandra (Plate XLI.) 99 



Bauhinia tomentosa (Plate XL.) 97 

Bean Family 76 

Beaumontia grandiflora 175 

Berrva Amonilla (Plate LIV.). ... 135 

Be-still Tree 181 

Betel-nut Palm 49 

Bhel fruit 120 

Bignoniaceae 191 

Bignonia Family 191 

Bignonia jasminoides 191 

Bignonia tiveediana 191 

Bignonia unguis-cati 191 

Bignonia venusta 191 

Bixaceae 157 

Bixa orellana 159 

Black Bean 113 

Black Kauri 5 

Black Myrobalan 167 

Blackwood 85 

Bleeding Heart 184 

Bloodwood Tree 107 

Blue Palm 23 

Bombaceae 141 

Bombax Ceiba 141 

Bombax ellipticum (Plate LVI.) 143 

Bombax Family 141 

Bon-Yi 9 

Borassus flabelliformis 33 

(Plate XIV.) 

Borraginaceae 183 

Bottle Palm 41 

Bottle Tree 145 

Bougainvillea 69 

Bougainvillea glabra 69 

Bougainvillea spectabilis 69 

var lateritia 69 

var. parviflora 69 

Brachvchiton acerifolium 151 

(Plate LXII.) 

Brachvchiton discolor 153 

(Plate LXIII.) 

Brassaia actinophvlla 169 

(Plate LXIX.) ' 

Breadfruit 62 

Bridelia glauca 127 

Broom Palm 17 

Brownea grandiceps 77 

Brownea hybrida 77 

Buckthorn Family 133 

Bullock's Heart 70 

Bumelia 172 

Bunchosia 125 

Bunya 9 

Burseraceae 121 

Cabbage Palm 45 

Cacao 149 

Cacao Family 149 

Cactaceae 160 

Cactus Family 160 

Caesalpinia coriaria 109 

Caesalpinia pulcherrima 109 

(Plate XLVI.) 

Caesalpinia sappan Ill 

Caesalpinioideae 76, 77 

Cajeput Tree 168 

Calabash Tree 195 

California Fan Palm 25 

Calophyllum inophyllum 157 

Calotropis gigantea 175 

Campanilla 181 

Camphor Tree 73 

Cananga odorata 70 

Canangium odoratum 70 

Canarium commune 121 

Canarium Nut Familv 121 

Candle Tree 191 

Carica papaya 160 

Carissa carandas 175 

Carludovica palmata 57 

Caroline Ivory-nut Palm 35 

Caryota mitis 39 

Caryota urens (Plate XVI.) 37 

Cashew Nut 132 

Cassia alata 101 

Cassia fistula (Plate XLIII.) 103 

Cassia florida 99 

Cassia glauca 101 

Cassia grandis 103 

Cassia Javanica 107 

Cassia laevigata 101 

Cassia nodosa (Plate XLIV.) 105 

Cassia siamea (Plate XLII.) 99 

Castanospermum australe 113 

Castilloa elastica 62 

Casuarina equisitifolia 61 

(Plate XXVII.) 

Casuarina quadrivalvis 62 

Casuarinaceae 61 

Catharto carpus 105 

Cat's-paw Climber 191 

Cedrela Toona 121 

Ceiba pentandra (Plate LVII.) 143 

Ceratonia siliqua 91 

Cerbera odollam 181 

Cereus triangularis 160 

Cestrum aurantiacum 189 

Cestrum diurnum 189 

Cestrum nocturnum 189 

Chamaerops humilis 13 

Chamaerops macrocarpa 13 



Changeable Rose-Mallow 139 

(Plate LV.) 

Cherimolia 70 

Chico 172 

Chinese Banyan 65 

Chinese Ink-berry 189 

Chinese Tallow Tree 127 

Chrysalidocarpus lutescens 43 

Chrysophyllum cainito 172 

Chrvsophylluin monopyrenum 172 

Cinchona succirubra 201 

Cinnamomum camphora 72 

Cinnamomum Zeylanicum 72 

Cinnamon Tree 72 

Citrus 120 

Clausena Wampi 120 

Clerodendron fragrans 184 

Clerodendron Siphonanthus 184 

Clerodendron squamatum 184 

Clerodendron Thomsonae 184 

Clitorea ternatea 77 

Coarong 7 

Coccoloba uvifera 69 

Coccothrinax argentea 17 

(Plate IV.) 

Coccothrinax barbadensis 19 

Cochlospermaceae 157 

Cochlospermum Balicum 159 

(Plate LXV.) 

Cochlospermum hibiscoides 159 

Cochlospermum vitifolium 159 

Coconut Palm 53 

Cocos nucifera 53 

Cocos odorata 57 

Cocos plumosa (Plate XXIV.).... 55 

Cocos Romanzoffiana 55, 57 

(Plate XXV.) 

Codiaeum variegatum 128 

Coelococcus carolinensis 35 

(Plate XV.) 

Coffea arabica 199 

Coffea liberica 199 

Coffee 199 

Coffee Family 199 

Cohune-nut Palm 53 

Colonial Pine 7 

Combretaceae — 165 

Copal Tree 93 

Copernicia cerifera 13 

Coral Flower 197 

Coral .Hibiscus 137 

Cordia alba 184 

Cordia Collococca 184 

Cordia latifolia 184 

Cordia myxa 183 

Cordia sebestena 183 

Corynocarpaceae 132 

Corynocarpus laevigata 133 

Corypha umbraculifera 19 

(Plate V.) 

Cotton Tree 141 

Covered-Seeded Plants 9 

Cowrie Spruce 5 

Crape Myrtle 163 

Cratoxylon polyanthum 

var. ligustrinum 157 

Crescentia cujute 195 

Croton -s, 128 

Crown of Thorns 131 

Crpytomeria japonica 4 

Cryptostegia grandiflora 175 

Cuban Palm 17 

Cupressus 4 

Cupressus funebris 4 

Cupressus sempervirens 4 

Custard Apple 70 

Cycadaceae 1 

Cycas circinalis (Plate I.) 3 

Cycas media 3 

Cycas revoluta 1 

Cyclanthaceae 57 

Cyphomandra Hartwegi 189 

Cypress 4 

Dacrydium 4 

Dalbergia sissoa 77 

Damascene Plum 172 

Dammar a australis 4 

Date Palm 13 

Datura arborea 189 

Datura suaveolens 189 

Delonix regia (Plate XLV.) 107 

Dicotyledones 61 

Dictvosperma album 47 

(Plate XXI.) 

Dictvosperma (Areca) rubra 47 

Didymosperma (Wallichia) 

distichum 11 

Diospyros decandra 172 

Diospyros ebenaster 172 

Dita Bark 179 

Divi-divi 109 

Duranta plumieri 187 

Duranta repens (Plate LXXIV.).. 187 
Dwarf Fan Palm 13 

Ebenaceae 172 

Ebony Family 172 

Egyptian rattle pod 114 

Elaeis guineensis (Plate XXII.) .. 51 

Elaeocarpaceae 133 

Elaeocarpus grandis 133 

Elephant's Ear 77 



Enterolobium cyclocarpum 77 

Plate XXXI.) 

Erythea armata (Plate VIII.)-— 23 

Erythrina crista-galli 120 

Erythrina fusca 120 

Erythrina indica (Plate L.) 119 

Erythrina lithosperma 120 

Erythrina subumbrans 120 

Eucalyptus calophylla 168 

Eucalyptus citriodora 168 

Eucalyptus globulus 168 

Eucalyptus robusta 168 

Eugenia brasiliensis 168 

Eugenia Jambolana 168 

Eugenia Jambos 168 

Eugenia malaccensis 168 

Eugenia uniflora 168 

Euphorbia antiquorum 131 

Euphorbia cattimandoo 131 

Euphorbiaceae 127 

Euphorbia Family 127 

Euphorbia heterophylla 131 

Euphorbia pulcherrima 129 

Euphorbia splendens 131 

Euphorbia tirucalli 131 

Euphorbia trigona 131 

Euphoria longana 133 

Fagraea sp 173 

False wiliwili 91 

Feathery Cocopalm 55 

Ficus bengalensis 63 

(Plate XXVIII.) 

Ficus benjamina 65 

Ficus carica 67 

Ficus elastica 62 

Ficus heterophylla 67 

Ficus hispida 67 

Ficus infectoria 67 

Ficus parcelli 67 

Ficus religiosa 65 

Ficus Rumphii 67 

Fish Poison Tree 117 

Fish-tail Palm 37 

Flacourtia Cataphracta 159 

Flacourtiaceae 159 

Flacourtia Family 159 

Flacourtia Jangomas 159 

Flacourtia sepiaria 159 

Flamboyant 107 

Flame Tree 107 

Flame Tree 151 

Foreign wiliwili 119 

Fountain Tree 193 

Frangipani 175 

Fraxinus 172 

Fraxinus floribunda 172 

Gardenia 201 

Gardenia florida 201 

Galphimia glauca 125 

Garcinia mangostana 157 

Garcinia xanthochymus 157 

Geraniaceae 120 

Giant Milk-weed 175 

Gliricidia sepium 77 

Golden-Cup 189 

Golden Dewdrop 187 

Golden Shower 103 

Grape Family 133 

Graptophyllum liortense 199 

Graptophvllum pictum 199 

(Plate LXXVIII.) 

Graveyard Flower 175 

Grevillea Banksii 67, 68 

Grevillea robusta 67 

Ground Rattan Palm 17 

Guava 167 

Guazima or Guasima 155 

Guazuma ulmifolia 155 

Guttapercha Family 172 

Guttiferae 157 

Gymnospermae 1 

Haematoxylum campechianum .... 107 

Harpullia Hillii 133 

Harpullia pendula 133 

Hau Tree 136 

Hawaiian Mahogany 122 

Heliconia metallica 59 

Heliotrope 183 

Heliotrope Family 183 

Heliotropium peruvianum 183 

Henna 160 

Henna Family 160 

Heritiera littoralis 153 

Hernandiaceae 73 

Hernandia bivalvis 75 

Hernandia peltata 73 

Hevea brasiliensis 127 

Hibiscus collinus 136 

Hibiscus Family 135 

Hibiscus mutabilis (Plate LV.) 139 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 137 

Hibiscus sabdarifa 136 

Hibiscus schizopetalus 137 

Hibiscus tiliaceus 136 

Hog-plum 132 

Hoop Pine 7 

Horse Cassia 103 

Horse-radish Tree 75 



Howea Belmoreana H 

Howea Forsteriana 11 

Hova carnosa 175 

Hura crepitans (Plate LIII.j 129 

Hyophorbe amaricaulis +1 

Hyophorbe (Chrysalidocarpus) 

Iutescens 43 

Hyphorbe Verschaffeltii 43 

Hang Hang 70, 71 

Indian Almond 165 

Indian Coral Tree 119 

Indian Laburnum 103 

India Rubber Tree 62 

Inocarpus edulis 117 

lntsia bijuga 76 

Ironwood 61 

Ivy 117 

Ivorv-nut Palm 35 

Ixora 201 

Ixora coccinea 201 

Ixora macrothvrsa 201 

(Plate LXXIX.) 

Jacaranda 191 

Jacaranda mimosaefolia 191 

Jacaranda ovalifolia 191 

(Plate LXXV.) 

Jak fruit - 62 

Jasminum multiflorum 173 

Jatropha curcas 127 

Jatropha multifida 127 

Jujube 133 

Kalomona 101 

Kamani, False 165 

Kamani, Tree 157 

Karaka Tree 132 

Kassod Tree 99 

Kauri Pine 4 

Kentia 11 

Kiawe - 87 

Kigelia africana (Plate 

LXXVII.) 195 

Kleinhofia hospita (Plate LXIV.) 155 

Klu 76 

Koa 85 

Koa haole 76 

Kou, foreign 183 

Kukui 127 


Lactaria calocarpa 179 

Lagerstroemia indica 163 

Lagerstroemia speciosa 161 

(Plate LXVI.) 
Lagunaria patersonii 139 

Lantana 189 

Lantana camara 189 

Latania commersonii 33 

Latania glaucophylla 33 

Latania Loddigesii (Plate XIII.) 33 

Lauraceae 72 

Laurel Family 72 

Lawsonia inermis 160 

Lecythidaceae 163 

Leea aculeata 133 

Leea manillensis 133 

Leea sambucina 133 

Leguminosae 76 

Leucaena glauca 76 

Ligustrum ovalifolium 173 

Linden Family 135 

Linociera intermedia 

var. Roxburghii 173 

Litchi chinensis 133 

Litchi, Chinese 133 

Livistona australis (Plate VII.)-- 23 

Livistona chinensis (Plate VI.)-- 21 

Livistona rotundifolia 21 

Lochnera rosea 175 

Loganiaceae 173 

Logwood Tree 107 

Lonchocarpus 77 

Longan 133 

Looking-glass Tree 153 

Lythraceae 160 

Macadamia ternifolia 67 

Magnoliaceae 70 

Magnolia grandiflora 70 

Mahogany, Tree 122 

Malpighia glabra 125 

Malpighiaceae 125 

Malvaceae 135 

Malvaviscus arboreus 136 

Mamakara 157 

Mangifera indica 132 

Mango 132 

Mango Family 132 

Mangosteen 157 

Mangosteen Family 157 

Manila Tamarind 79 

Melaleuca leucadendron 168 

Melia Azedarach 122 

Meliaceae 121 

Mesquite 37 

Metroxylon Sagus 3 39 

Mexican creeper 59 

Michelia champaca 70 

Michelia fuscata 70 

Milk-week Family 175 

Mi 'o - 136 


I rule: 

Mimosoideae 67, 77 

Mimusops elengi 172 

Mock Orange 120 

Monkey bread 145 

Monkey's dinner bell 129 

Monkey-pod 81 

Monocotyledones 9 

Monstera deliciosa 57 

Moraceae 62 

Morado 199 

Moreton Bay Chestnut 113 

Moreton Bay Pine 7 

Moringaceae 75 

Moringa oleifera (Plate XXX.) 75 

Morus nigra 62 

Mourning Cypress 4 

Muehlenbeckia platyclada 69 

Mulang 70 

Mulberry Family 62 

Murraya exotica 120 

Musa Cavendishii 57 

Musaceae 57 

Mussaenda erythrophylla 201 

Myristicaceae 71 

Myristica fragrans 71 

Myrsinaceae 171 

Myrtaceae 167 

Myrtle, common 168 

Myrtle Family 167 

Myrtus communis 168 

Naked-Seeded Plants 1 

Narra 115 

Neem or Nim Tree 123 

Nerium indicum 182 

Nerium odorum 182 

Nerium oleander 182 

Night-blooming Cereus 160 

Nim or Neem Tree 123 

Norfolk Island Pine 6 

Noronhia emarginata 172 

Nothopanax cochleatum 169 

Nothopanax fruticosum 169 

Nothopanax Guilfoylei 168 

Nothopanax ornatum 169 

Nothopanax pinnatum 169 

Nutmeg 71 

Nutmeg Family 71 

Nux-Vomica 173 

Nyctaginaceae 69 

Ochrosia acuminata 179 

Ochosia calocar pa 179 

Ochrosia elliptica (Plate LXXI.) 179 
Oil Palm 51 

Oleaceae 172 

Olea europea 172 

Ulea paniculata 173 

Oleander 182 

Olive 172 

Olive Family 172 

Opiuma 79 

Orange Family 120 

Orange — Trumpet Vine 191 

Oreodoxa oleracea 45 

Oreodoxa regia (Plate XIX.)-.. 43 

Osmanthus fragrans 172 

Otaheite Apple 132 

Oxalidaceae 120 

Pahudia rhomboidea 77 

Painted Leaf 131 

Palma de escoba 17 

Palmae 10 

Palmetto Palm 29 

Palms 10 

Palmyra Palm 33 

Pandanaceae 10 

Pandanus Rockii 10 

Pandanus sylvestris 10 

Pandanus tectorius 10 

Pandanus Veitchii 10 

Pangium edule 159 

Papaya 160 

Papilionatae 76, 77 

Para Rubber Tree 127 

Parkia timoriana 77 

Parkinsonia aculeata 76 

Parmentiera cerifera 191 

Pavetta 201 

Peepul Tree 65 

Pelargonium 120 

Peltoplwrum ferrugineum 113 

Peltophorum inerme (Plate 

XLVIII.) 113 

Pepper Tree 132 

Persea americana 72 

Persian Lilac 122 

Petraea volubilis 189 

Philodendron 57 

Phoenix canariensis 15 

Phoenix dactylifera (Plate III.) 13 

Phoenix farinifera 15 

Phoenix humilis 15 

Phoenix pusilla 15 

Phoenix reclinata 15 

Phoenix spinosa 15 

Phyllanthus distichus 127 

Phyllanthus emblica 127 

Phyllanthus nivosus 127 

var. roseopictUs 127 



Pigeonwood 69 

Pili Nut Tree 121 

Pimenta officinalis 168 

Pinaceae 4 

Pinanga Kuhlii 11 

Pine Family 4 

Pink and White Shower 105 

Pink Shower 103 

Piscidia ervthrina (Plate XLIX.) 117 
Pithecolobium dulce (Plate 

XXXII.) 79 

Pithecolobium saman 81 

Platymiscium floribundum 77 

Plumbaginaceae 171 

Plumbago auriculata 171 

Plumbago capensis 171 

Plumiera acutifolia 175 

Plumiera Family 175 

Plumiera rubra "(Plate LXX.) — 177 

Podocarpus neriifolia 4 

Poinciana regia 107 

Poinsettia 129 

Polyalthia 70 

Polvgonaceae 69 

Pomegranate 163 

Pomegranate Family 163 

Pongamia mitis 115 

Potato Family 189 

Potato Vine 189 

Pride of Barbados 109 

Pride of India 122 

Pritchardia 11 

Pritchardia pacifica (Plate IX.) 23 

Prosopis dulcis 87 

Prosopis glandulosa 87 

Prosopis juliflora (Plate 

XXXVI.) 87 

Proteaceae 67 

Psidium cattleyanum 168 

Psidium Guayava 167 

Psidium Guayava 

pomiferum 168 

pyriferum 168 

Pterocarpus indicus 115 

Pterocarpus santalinus 91 

Pterospermum suberifolium 149 

Punicaceae 163 

Punica granatum 163 

Purging Cassia 103 

Pyrostegia (Bignonia) venusta.. 191 

Quinine Tree 201 

Quisqualis indica 167 

Rain Tree 81 

Raphidophora 57 

Ravenala madagascariensis 59 

Red Hibiscus, Chinese 137 

Red Kalabuci 128 

Red Kauri 5 

Red Palm 41 

Red Sandalwood 91 

Red Wood 91 

Rhamnaceae 133 

Rhapis cochinchinensis 17 

Rhapis flabelliformis 17 

Rhynchospermum jasminoides.... 175 

Richmond River Pine 7 

Roble Amarillo 192 

Rondeletia odorata 199 

Royal Palm 43 

Royal Poinciana 107 

Rozelle 136 

Rubiaceae 199 

Russelia juncea 197 

Rutaceae 120 

Sabal Adansonii 29 

Sabal Blackburniana 27 

Sabal Palmetto (Plate XII.) 29 

Sago Palm 1 

Samanea saman (Plate 

XXXIII.) 81 

Sanchezia nobilis 197 

Sandbox Tree 129 

Sandpaper Vine 189 

Santol Family 121 

Sapindaceae 133 

Sapindus saponaria 133 

Sapium sebiferum 127 

Sapotaceae 172 

Sappan Wood Ill 

Saraca declinata 77 

Saraca indica (Plate XXXVII.) 91 

Sausage Tree 195 

Schinus molle 132 

Schinus terebinthifolius 132 

Schizolobium excelsum 77 

Scindapsus aureus 57 

Scrophulariaceae .... 197 

Sea Grape 69 

Seaforthia elegans 47 

Semecarpus Anacardium 132 

Sesban 114 

Sesbania grandiflora 114 

var. coccinea 1 14 

Sesbania sesban 114 

Sikkim Palm 11 

Silk Cotton Tree 143 

Silky Oak 67 

Siris Tree 83 

Snow Bush 127 

Soap-berry Family 133 

Soap-berry Tree 133 

Soft Kauri 5 



Solanaceae 189 

Solandra grandiflora 189 

Solanum Wendlandii 189 

Sorrow-less Tree 91 

Sour Gourd 145 

Soursop 70 

itparattospernta lithotripticum .... 192 
Sparattosperma vernicosum 

(Frontispiece) 192 

Spathodea campanulata ( Plate 

LXXVI.) 193 

Spondias dulcis 132 

Spondias lutea 132 

Spondias mangifera 132 

Star Apple 172 

Stephanotis floribunda 175 

Sterculiaceae 149 

Sterculia foetida 151 

Sterculia urens (Plates LX and) 

LXI.) 149 

St. John's Bread 91 

Strelitzia regina 59 

Strychnine Family 173 

Strychnine Tree 173 

Strychnos nux-vomica 173 

St. Thomas Tree 99 

Sugar Apple 70 

Sugar Palm 39 

Sumach, American 109 

Swietenia Mahogani 122 

Syncarpia glomulifera 168 

Syncarpia laurifolia 168 

Syngonium podophyllum 57 

Tahitian Chestnut 117 

Talipot Palm 19 

Tamarind Tree 95 

Tamarindus indica (Plate 

XXXIX.) 95 

Teak Tree 185 

Tecomaria capensis 191 

Tecoma stans 192 

Tectona grandis (Plate 

LXXIII.) 185 

Temple Folwer 175 

Terminalia arborea 167 

Terminalia catappa (Plate 

LXVIII.) 165 

Terminalia Chebula 167 

Terminalia Family 165 

Terminalia sumatrana 167 


Theobroma cacao 149 

Fhespesia populnea 136 

Thevetia Iccotli 182 

Thevetia neriifolia (Plate 

LXXII.) 181 

Thrinax argentea 17 

Thrinax parviflora 19 

Thrinax radiata 19 

Thunbergia erecta 197 

Thunbergia grandiflora 197 

Tiger's Claw 119 

Tiliaceae 135 

Toona ciliata 121 

Toona febrifuga 121 

Tournefortia argentea 184 

Trachelospermum divaricatum .... 175 

Trachycarpus excelsa 13 

Trachvlobium verrucosum 

(Plate XXXVIII.) 93 

Traveller's Palm or Traveller's 

Tree 59 

Tree Tomato 189 

Trincomali Wood 135 

Tulip Tree 149 

Tulip Tree 193 

Umbrella Tree 165 

Yerbenaceae 184 

Verbena Family 184 

Vinca rosea 175 

Vitaceae 133 

Vitex pubescens 185 

Vitex sp 185 

Vitex vestita 185 

Wampi 120 

Washingtonia filifera ( Plate X.) 25 
Washingtonia robusta (Plate 

XI.) .25, 27 

Washingtonia sonorae 25 

Wattles, Australian 76 

Wax Palm 13 

Wax Plant 175 

White Oak 139 

White Kauri 5 

Wi Apple 132 

Wiliwili, False 91 

Wine Palm 37 

Yellow Oleander 181 

Yellow Poinciana 113 

Zizyphus jujuba 133 


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